Journal news

Sarcocystis rileyi in UK free-living wildfowl (Anatidae): surveillance, histopathology and first molecular characterisation

Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020
Background

Reports from UK hunters of ‘rice grains’ in muscles of shot wildfowl (Anatidae) coincided temporally with the finding of sarcocystosis in a number of ducks found as part of the Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust long-term general surveillance of found dead waterbirds. Sarcocystis rileyi has also been relatively recently confirmed in wildfowl in north-eastern Europe.

Methods

This study uses four approaches to investigate UK wildfowl sarcocystosis: first, through a hunter questionnaire that captured historical case data; secondly, through an online reporting system; thirdly, DNA sequencing to characterise UK cases; and fourthly, histological myopathy assessment of infected pectoral muscle.

Results

Our questionnaire results suggest Sarcocystis infection is widely distributed throughout the UK and observed in 10 Anatidae species, reported cases increased since the 2010/2011 shooting season, with the online reporting system reflecting this increase. DNA sequencing (18S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer-1 region) of UK isolates confirmed S rileyi in the five dabbling duck host species tested and the associated histopathological myopathy is described.

Conclusion

This work highlights an emerging issue to European wildfowl species and provides much opportunity for further research, including the impacts of S rileyi and the described myopathy on host health, fitness and survival.

Categories: Journal news

Contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of hepatocellular carcinoma in dogs

Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020
Background

This study aimed to describe the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features of canine hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in relation to cellular differentiation and lesion size.

Methods

Sixty dogs with a cytological diagnosis of HCC and that underwent a CEUS examination were retrospectively selected. The wash-in and wash-out patterns of contrast enhancement, along with the time to wash-in and the time to wash-out, of each lesion were recorded. A dimensional cut-off value of 3 cm was adopted for classification.

Results

Cellular differentiation had a significant influence on both wash-in (chi-squared=16.99; P<0.001) and wash-out (chi-squared=10.9; P=0.004) patterns of contrast enhancement. Lesion size had a lower, but still significant, influence on both wash-in (chi-squared=12.7; P=0.005) and wash-out (chi-squared=7.42; P=0.024) patterns. A homogeneous hyperenhancement in the arterial phase followed by homogeneous wash-out were suggestive of a well-differentiated HCC. The cellular differentiation of lesions with inhomogeneous hyperenhancement or hypoenhancement/no enhancement as well as an inhomogeneous wash-out or no wash-out could not be inferred.

Conclusions

No significant difference in the time to wash-in and the time to wash-out in relation to cellular differentiation or lesion size was evident. CEUS has the potential to improve efficiency in the diagnosis of HCCs in dogs.

Categories: Journal news

Comparing wound complications associated with midline and flank approaches for spaying cats

Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020

Bottom line

  • There is no evidence that either a flank or midline approach for spaying cats is consistently associated with more wound complications, and, overall, complication rates appear to be low.

  • Clinical scenario

    Miss Tabby brings you a colony of feral cats she has trapped in her garden to be neutered. The cats cannot be handled and will be monitored postoperatively by visual inspection from at least 10 feet away. She asks you if they can be spayed via a flank approach so that she will be able to see the incision site more easily.

    However, as the cats can only be monitored from a distance, and re-trapping after surgery would be difficult, any postoperative complications would be very difficult to address and could potentially pose a serious welfare concern. You wonder if using a flank approach would lead to more postoperative wound complications than a...

    Categories: Journal news

    Selected highlights from other journals

    Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020
    Anxious rabbits are more likely to have intraoperative apnoea

    C. Krall, S. Glass, G. Dancourt and others

    Applied Animal Behaviour Science (2019) 221

    doi: 10.1016/j.applanim.2019.104875

    • What did the research find?

    Nine of the 31 rabbits in this study exhibited behavioural signs of anxiety. These rabbits were significantly more likely to experience intraoperative apnoea (P=0.01) than rabbits that did not exhibit behavioural signs of anxiety. Anxious rabbits also tended to have a higher heart rate and greater cardiac instability during anaesthesia. In addition, irrespective of anxiety, rabbits that experienced preoperative apnoea were found to be significantly more difficult to intubate (P=0.001).

    • How was it conducted?

    A total of 31 singly-housed female rabbits that were scheduled for a brief experimental ophthalmic surgery were included in this study. Before surgery, the rabbits were assessed for anxiety using behavioural observations and a modified intruder test – both of which were performed...

    Categories: Journal news

    Prolific vomiting in dogs

    Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020

    Vomiting is a frequent reason why dogs are brought to the veterinary practice, and it is often mild and self-limiting.1 However, recently the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET) has become aware of reports from veterinary surgeons of acute-onset prolific vomiting in dogs in various parts of the UK. We are working to investigate this potential outbreak.

    Affected dogs are described as vomiting prolifically (five or more episodes in a 12-hour period) with prolonged lethargy and inappetence, and they can sometimes have diarrhoea. Affected dogs usually make a full recovery with routine symptomatic veterinary therapy. There is no known risk to people or other animals, including cats. There is some anecdotal evidence that affected dogs can transmit the disease to other dogs with which they have close contact. Therefore, it makes sense for owners and vets to handle suspect cases carefully, and limit contact between affected and...

    Categories: Journal news

    Bovine TB in Dyfed

    Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020

    According to the AHPA’s response to a Freedom of Information request, 8995 cattle TB reactors from farms in Dyfed were slaughtered during 2018 and up to the end of June 2019 (VR, 25 January 2020, vol 186, p 81). Only six (0.067%) were found to have TB lung lesions postmortem, while 1019 (11.3%) showed other lesions. It is not clear if all reactors were examined postmortem, or how comprehensibly. Neither the location of lesions within lungs nor the sites of ‘other lesions’ are specified. Nor is there reference to results of mycobacterial culture of specimens confirming Mycobacterium bovis infection.

    Bovine TB (bTB) lung lesions in cattle can result from M bovis being orally ingested or inhaled. Lesions in anterior lobes indicate blood borne infection via lymph from gut mucosa; those in diaphragmatic lobes from inhaled infection.1 The former can progress to resemble the latter.1

    Postmortem...

    Categories: Journal news

    Corrections: Wales criticised for its bovine TB approach

    Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020

    NEWS & REPORTS: Wales criticised for its bovine TB approach (VR, 25 January 2020, vol 186, p 81). It was stated that Labour currently governs alone in Wales, whereas Labour currently governs in Wales in a minority coalition with the sole remaining Liberal Democrat in the Welsh Assembly, Kirsty Williams, and an independent assembly member, Dafydd Elis-Thomas. The article also stated that, of 8995 reactors from farms in Dyfed that were slaughtered during breakdowns, six cattle were found to have TB lung lesions postmortem, and that this equated to ‘0.6 per cent’ of that total. The correct percentage is 0.067 per cent. The errors are regretted.

    doi: 10.1136/vr.m271

    Categories: Journal news

    The profession has a duty to support its farmers

    Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020

    I was filled with great shame after reading the article ‘Climate change: "no get out of jail free card"’ by Pete Smith and Andrew Balmford (VR, 18 January 2020, vol 186, p 71).

    The veterinary profession has evolved in harmony with the agriculture sector. Since the very beginning, vets have built their livelihoods based on the trust bestowed upon them by farmers, to support farmers in their efforts for healthy livestock and a sustainable future. In the 21st century, those of us working in the farm sector still pride ourselves on the strength of the relationships we develop with our farm clients. Many clients, who we work alongside daily, become lifelong friends and mutual confidants. I wonder what they would make of this blame-ridden article.

    With Veganuary growing every year and TV programmes misrepresenting British farming in the most infuriatingly biased broadcasts, livestock farmers have become the nations’ favourite...

    Categories: Journal news

    Death notices

    Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020

    Ball On 3 January 2020, Frederick Charles Ball, BVetMed, MRCVS, of Virginia Water, Surrey. Mr Ball qualified from London in 1961.

    doi: 10.1136/vr.m433

    Fox On 31 January 2020, Roger Carter Fox, MRCVS, of Market Harborough, Leicestershire. Mr Fox qualified from London in 1949.

    doi: 10.1136/vr.m556

    Watts On 25 January 2020, Michael Edwin Thomas Watts, BVSc, MRCVS, of Cheltenham, Gloucestershire. Mr Watts qualified from Bristol in 1959.

    doi: 10.1136/vr.m435

    Categories: Journal news

    Effect of the Australian bushfires on our vets

    Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020

    There have always been bushfires during Australia’s summer season. However, this year we have seen unprecedented outbreaks, fuelled by three years of drought and other effects of climate change. The fires started in September and are still burning. It is now February and, as I write this column, a fire is approaching Canberra from the south. Every day the toll increases – a billion native animals killed, 14 million hectares burnt, 10s of 1000s of livestock killed, 3000 homes lost and 34 people killed. We feel grief, sadness and despair, but at the same time a sense of community and a desire to help and to heal.

    The grief is intense. I have asked vets in fire zones if they are getting any wildlife brought in. The answer is not much because sadly the animals have already died. Maybe just 10 per cent of our native animals are surviving...

    Categories: Journal news

    Michael Alan Horrox

    Veterinary Record latest issue - 13 February 2020

    A Yorkshire practitioner whose expertise led him to work with a variety of species. He enjoyed involvement in a number of veterinary groups, as well as local organisations in his home town.

    Categories: Journal news
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