Ethiopia

A cluster-randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of different knowledge-transfer interventions for rural working equid users in Ethiopia

Citation

Andrew P. Stringer, Catriona Bell, Robert M. Christley, Feseha Gebreab, Karen Reed, Andrew F. Trawford, Gina L. Pinchbeck. June 2011. A cluster-randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of different knowledge-transfer interventions for rural working equid users in Ethiopia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 100:2. 90-99.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
15 June 2011
Volume: 
100
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
90-99
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.02.001
Abstract

There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of knowledge-transfer methods for livestock owners in developing countries, and to the authors' knowledge no published work is available that evaluates the effect of knowledge-transfer interventions on the education of working equid users. A cluster-randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) was used to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of three knowledge-transfer interventions on knowledge-change about equid health amongst rural Ethiopian working equid users. Groups were exposed to either; an audio programme, a village meeting or a diagrammatic handout, all of which addressed identical learning objectives, and were compared to a control group which received no intervention. Thirty-two villages were randomly selected and interventions randomly assigned. All participants in a village received the same intervention. Knowledge levels were assessed by questionnaire administration. Data analysis included comparison of baseline data between intervention groups followed by multilevel linear regression models (allowing for clustering of individuals within village) to evaluate the change in knowledge between the different knowledge-transfer interventions. A total of 516 randomly selected participants completed the pre-intervention questionnaire, 504 of whom undertook the post-dissemination questionnaire, a follow up response rate of 98%. All interventions significantly improved the overall 'change in knowledge' score on the questionnaire compared to the control, with the diagrammatic handout (coefficient (coef) 9.5, S.E.=0.6) and the village meeting (coef 9.7, S.E.=0.6) having a significantly greater impact than the audio programme (coef 4.8, S.E.=0.6). Covariates that were different at baseline, and which were also significant in the final model, were age and pre-intervention score. Although they had a minimal effect on the intervention coefficients there was a significant interaction between age and intervention. This study should aid the design of education materials for adult learning for working equid users and other groups in developing countries.

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Mainstreaming equine health and welfare - experiences of The Donkey Health and Welfare Project (DHWP) Amhara, Ethiopia

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

The Amhara region has the largest donkey population in Ethiopia. However, their welfare can be poor, due to environmental, disease and management problems. This is aggravated by cultural prejudices towards donkeys, their low economic value and the poverty of farmers. In 2003 the Donkey Sanctuary (Sidmouth, UK) investigated the perceived disease constraints to welfare. The investigation made many recommendations; including developing the capacity of the existing government veterinary service and helping make this service more available to donkey owners. In 2005, three government clinics were selected to take part in a pilot scheme. One veterinary surgeon and one animal health assistant from each clinic undertook to promote good medical treatment of donkeys in the area as well as participation in an extension programme aimed at improving donkey welfare. Basic drugs were supplied to the clinics free of charge and donkey owners were asked to pay only a nominal fee toward the cost of treatment. Many challenges were faced in developing this initiative including: finding personnel with the right knowledge, skills and most importantly attitude, negotiating with government bureaucracy and ensuring the availability and supply of drugs. Constant support and monitoring proved essential. The trial was reviewed after six months. This paper examines the lessons learned from this pilot study, the successes and failures, and reports on future developments.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Achievements of The Donkey Health and Welfare Project of The Donkey Sanctuary in Ethiopia (1994-2005)

Citation

E. Bojia, Feseha Gebreab, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Ayele, Mersha Tesfaye, B. Amare, N. Dereje, C. Chala, A. Abebe, Andrew F. Trawford, Joe Anzuino, Mulugeta Getachew. October 2010. Achievements of The Donkey Health and Welfare Project of The Donkey Sanctuary in Ethiopia (1994-2005). Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

In Ethiopia the Donkey Sanctuary started its health and welfare activities in 1994. This was the time when the International Donkey Protection Trust and Addis Ababa University concluded an agreement and signed a memorandum of understanding. Since that time and up to 2003, activities were centred in the districts of Bereh, Boset, Ada and Akaki and Addis Ababa Grain Market located at a radius of 100-150 kms from Debre Zeit, the centre with a stationery clinic. The facilities of the latter include an open-air clinic, surgical theatre, laboratory, store for drugs, boxes for mules and donkeys, offices and a training room. As of 2004, three districts namely: Dugda Bora, Lume and Sebata have been added as sites of operation. Resistance at the very beginning by donkey owners to bring their animals for treatment was a problem but over the years the service has obtained wide acceptance, the trend exhibiting exponential growth: Ada (R2=0.87), Akaki (R2=0.88), Bereh (R2=0.70), Boset (R2=0.70), and for mules (R2=0.84). The clinic has so far provided treatments to 289,999 donkeys and 14,665 mules, and 217,609 owners have benefited. In 2003 two satellite projects have been set up in the northern part of Ethiopia: Amhara and Tigray and have so far treated more than 72,000 donkeys and mules and more than 29,000 owners have benefited. The centre at Debre Zeit was also designed to cater for local and international training, to date it has provided training to 217 veterinary professionals (28 foreign vets, 41 local vets, 17 foreign and 101 local animal health assistants, 30 local animal health technicians) in donkey medicine, surgery, farriery and general welfare. Since 2002, 297 clinical year students enrolled for the DVM degree in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Addis Ababa University have been trained in donkey medicine and surgery. Three to four clinical year students accompany mobile teams in field operations on a weekly rotation basis. Recently, the project has embarked on an education and extension programme in conjunction with its treatment activities and so far 51,513 owners have benefited. In the recently launched school education programme 1014 students in 7 primary schools are attending sessions in the basics of animal welfare. Baseline data development for the understanding of the health and welfare problems of donkeys in Ethiopia is being pursued by the project staff and through the supervision of DVM thesis involving final year students.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2010

A comprehensive approach to minimise the fatal effects of tetanus and colic in donkeys of Ethiopia

Citation

E. Bojia, Feseha Gebreab, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Ayele, Mersha Tesfaye, Andrew F. Trawford, Joe Anzuino. October 2006. A comprehensive approach to minimise the fatal effects of tetanus and colic in donkeys of Ethiopia. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Retrospective analysis of the clinic database between 2003-2005 indicated that tetanus (27 cases), colic (134), rabies (7), strangles (17), hyena bite (429), dystocia (39), hernia (27) and car accidents are the major causes of direct mortality in donkeys of Central Ethiopia. The case fatality rates of donkeys affected by these diseases were: tetanus 22%, colic 27%, dystocia 15%, strangles 12%, hernia 11%, hyena bite 7% and rabies 100%, in clinical intervention sites of the Donkey Sanctuary. In the non-intervention areas the mortality rates are expected to be higher as there would be no treatment intervention. In this paper the two major causes of mortality: tetanus and colic are discussed. In the project in Ethiopia, treatments of advanced cases of tetanus following standard procedures have been successful. Of 27 cases treated 21 have been cured. The treatment has, however, been expensive, costing the project an average of 1400 Eth Birr per donkey (mature donkey costs 300-400 Eth Birr) and requiring a long period of hospitalisation. In an ideal situation, prophylactic immunisation is the best option. Economic realities however prohibit such an option from being feasible in countries like Ethiopia. An extension system and strategy that focus on the prevention of wounds using proper harnesses/saddles and institution of a sound hoof care programme is the option in mind. Colic characteristics are: gastric impaction 8%, obstruction of small intestines 7%, colonic impactions 19%, flatulent colic 23%, enterolithiasis/foreign bodies 24%, throboembolism due to strongylosis and undiagnosed cases 19%. Free access to mouldy or coarse feed, ingestion of polythene bags, fertiliser sacks and used fabrics of nylon clothes were the major causes. Common sites of lodgement for enteroliths were the proximal portion of the transverse colon, transverse and small colons. Enterolith/foreign body was often diagnosed in pregnant donkeys with colic. Few cases were relieved by surgery. A considerable number of the enteroliths were removed by manual traction. Veterinary intervention alone will do little to alleviate such problems. The use of school children to collect polyethylene bags and fertiliser sacks, improve farmers' awareness of the risk being posed by these materials and that of braided nylon ropes. Encouraging farmers to prevent donkeys from grazing at waste disposal sites is also another preventive measure that can be practised against colic. Extension and education programmes for owners should pay particular attention to these issues.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Empathy education about working animals in primary schools of central Ethiopia

Citation

G. Lemessa, Alemayehu Fanta, E. Bojia, B. Amare, Mersha Tesfaye, S. J. Price, Stephen Blakeway. December 2010. Empathy education about working animals in primary schools of central Ethiopia. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Abstract

The Donkey Sanctuary in Ethiopia launched an empathy education programme at 7 primary schools in 2005, to nurture school children's empathy with working animals. The objective of the programme was to enhance the ability of schoolchildren to build smooth relationships and positive attitudes towards animals, resulting in the creation of responsible citizens who are compassionate, kind, and love and have empathy with all animals. To show empathy is to identify with another's feelings. It is to put yourself emotionally in the place of another.

Proceedings
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

Community-based harness development initiative for pack donkeys: a progress report, Ethiopia

Citation

Mersha Tesfaye, E. Bojia, Feseha Gebreab, G. Ayele, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Lemessa, E. Manyahilishal, F. Seyoum, B. Amare, N. Dereje, C. Chala, A. Abebe, A. Gete, Chris Garrett, Joe Anzuino, Rob Nicholls, Mulugeta Getachew. December 2010. Community-based harness development initiative for pack donkeys: a progress report, Ethiopia. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Proceedings
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

Equine cestodosis: A sero-epidemiological study of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Feseha Gebreab, Stuart W. Reid, Faith A. Burden, Sandy Love. February 2012. Equine cestodosis: A sero-epidemiological study of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in Ethiopia. Veterinary Research Communications.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
4 February 2012
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11259-012-9516-z
Abstract

A 12/13 kDa antigen, tapeworm ELISA test, developed for use in horses, was used to detect parasite-specific serum antibody, IgG(T), in the serum of donkeys. In a pilot study the 12/13 kDa antigen was tested and proved to detect the antibody, IgG(T), in donkey sera. Blood samples from 797 donkeys, naturally exposed to cestode infection, from four geographical localities were collected and sera were prepared and analysed. There was substantial serological evidence that donkeys were potentially infected with A. perfoliata. A range of ELISA OD values were obtained from the serological assay. Over 26% and 7.5% of the donkeys were moderately and highly infected, respectively, showing at least a 34% sero-prevalence. The rest, 66.1%, were either with low infection intensity or negative for A. perfoliata infection. The risk of infections, both in sero-prevalence and intensity, as determined by ELISA optical density (OD), were highest in the highland areas of Ethiopia where pastures are low-lying and wet, and permanent pasture management is regularly practised. Sex, age and body condition of the donkeys had no significant effect either on prevalence of the infection or on the serum antibody level. These results indicate a risk of intestinal disorders, particularly, colic, associated with A. perfoliata infection in donkeys.

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Morphology and diagnosis of some fourth-stage larvae of cyathostomins (nematoda: strongyloidea) in donkeys, Equus asinus, from Ethiopia

Citation

Victor A. Kharchencko, Tetyana K. Kuzmina, Andrew F. Trawford, Mulugeta Getachew, Feseha Gebreab. January 2009. Morphology and diagnosis of some fourth-stage larvae of cyathostomins (nematoda: strongyloidea) in donkeys, Equus asinus, from Ethiopia. Systematic Parasitology. 72:1. 1-13.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2009
Volume: 
72
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
1-13

Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Feseha Gebreab, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid. January 2010. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys in Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 4:1. 1-13.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2010
Volume: 
4
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
1-13
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11250-009-9381-0
Abstract

The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.

Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide.

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