Ethiopia

Important factors in decision-making in tetanus cases in donkeys: Experience of donkey health and welfare project, Ethiopia

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G. Ayele, E. Bojia, Mulugeta Getachew, Mersha Tesfaye, E. Manyahilishal, B. Amare, A. Abebe, F. Seyoum, Joe Anzuino. December 2010. Important factors in decision-making in tetanus cases in donkeys: Experience of donkey health and welfare project, Ethiopia. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India. 407.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Abstract

There is not enough information on tetanus in working donkeys and factors that affect the outcome of the disease. Medical records of 45 working donkeys with a history of tetanus presented to the Donkey Health and Welfare Project, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia between 2008 and 2009 were reviewed. The animals were admitted to the clinic for
intensive treatment. The cases were divided into survivors and non-survivors groups. The clinical data of survivors and non-survivors were compared using a 2-sample t-test and chi-square test. The average time interval between the first clinical signs and recovery was 19.00±3.50 days for survivors. The survival rate was 66.3%. The first week appears to be the critical period for survival. Further data analysis showed no association between Tetanus Anti- Toxin (TAT) treatment and outcome. The occurrence of tetanus in working donkeys showed seasonality. The majority of tetanus cases were observed during the wet rainy season. Time elapsed between first clinical signs and hospitalization, complete lock jaw, dyspnoea, drenching pneumonia, and recumbency were the major indicators of poor prognosis for working donkeys suffering from tetanus.

Proceedings
Number of pages: 
407
Publisher: 
The Brooke
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

The impact of farmers' agents in improving donkey welfare in two districts of working sites of The Donkey Sanctuary Ethiopia - Tigray Programme

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Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Proceedings
Number of pages: 
407
Publisher: 
The Brooke
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

Equine parascarosis under the tropical weather conditions of Ethiopia: A coprological and postmortem study

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Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Andrew F. Trawford, Feseha Gebreab, Stuart W. Reid, Sandy Love. February 2008. Equine parascarosis under the tropical weather conditions of Ethiopia: A coprological and postmortem study. Veterinary Record. 162:6. 177-180.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2008
Journal: 
Veterinary Record
Volume: 
162
Issue: 
6
Page numbers: 
177-180
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.162.6.177
Abstract

A cross-sectional coprological survey in the regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective postmortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of Parascaris equorum in donkeys and horses in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 working donkeys and 402 horses were collected, and the numbers of worms recovered from 112 donkeys examined postmortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of infection and faecal egg output of P equorum in both donkeys and horses, and the severity of the infection in donkeys was increased irrespective of their age. The prevalence of the infection in the donkeys was 51·1 per cent and in the horses 16·2 per cent, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined postmortem was 55 per cent. There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in either the prevalence or the intensity of the infection. The prevalence of the infection was significantly higher in the Ada and Akaki regions than in the Bereh and Boset regions.

Parascaris equorum is an important parasite of young horses, particularly sucklings and weanlings (Russell 1948, Soulsby 1982, Austin and others 1990, Southwood and others 1998). The parasite has a worldwide distribution, and is usually present wherever horses are raised (Clayton 1986, Southwood and others 1998). It can reduce the growth rate of foals and cause occasional deaths due to intestinal obstruction or rupture (Dipietro and others 1983, Clayton 1986, Ryu and others 2004).

P equorum has also been reported in donkeys from various regions of the world (Tolliver and others 1985, Vercruysse and others 1986, Pandey and Eysker 1990, Ricci and Sabatini 1992, Burgu and others 1995, Daoud and Al-Alousi 1995, Feseha 1998, Lewa and others 1998, Getachew 1999, Kotwal and others 2000, Matthee and others 2002). However, most of these reports concern only small numbers of animals, and the information is rather fragmentary. There have been no specific studies of the epidemiology, pathogenicity and immunology of parascarid infections in horses and donkeys under the tropical weather conditions of Ethiopia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the epidemiology of this parasite in working donkeys and horses in Ethiopia by means of a cross-sectional coprological survey and retrospective postmortem examination findings.

Online references

A survey of seasonal patterns in strongyle faecal worm egg counts of working equids of the Central Midlands and Lowlands, Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Feseha Gebreab, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid. December 2008. A survey of seasonal patterns in strongyle faecal worm egg counts of working equids of the Central Midlands and Lowlands, Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 40:8. 637-642.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 December 2008
Volume: 
40
Issue: 
8
Page numbers: 
637-642
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11250-008-9142-5
Abstract

A study was conducted for two consecutive years (1998-1999) to determine the seasonal patterns of strongyle infection in working donkeys of Ethiopia. For the purpose 2385 donkeys from midland and lowland areas were examined for the presence of parasitic ova. A hundred percent prevalence of strongyle infection with similar seasonal pattern of strongyle faecal worm egg output was obtained in all study areas. However, seasonal variations in the number of strongyle faecal worm egg output were observed in all areas. The highest mean faecal worm egg outputs were recorded during the main rainy season (June to October) in both years in all areas. Although an increase in the mean strongyle faecal egg output was obtained in the short rainy season (March-April) followed by a drop in the short dry season (May), there was no statistically significant difference between the short rainy season and long dry season (Nov-Feb) (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference however, was obtained between the main rainy season and short rainy season, and between the main rainy season and dry season (P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained it is suggested that the most economical and effective control of strongyles can be achieved by strategic deworming programme during the hot dry pre-main rainy season (May), when the herbage coverage is scarce and helminthologically 'sterile', and the arrested development of the parasites is suppose to be terminating. This could insure the greatest proportion of the existing worm population to be exposed to anthelmintic and also reduces pasture contamination and further infection in the subsequent wet season.

Online references

Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid, Sandy Love. May 2011. Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Veterinary Parasitology. 169:3-4. 335-339.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
11 May 2011
Volume: 
169
Issue: 
3-4
Page numbers: 
335-339
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.01.007
Abstract

A cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. The overall prevalence of the infection was 44.4% in coprologically examined donkeys, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined post-mortem was 41.9%. The infection prevalence was significantly higher in Bereh and Ada regions than in Akaki and Boset regions. Bereh with 72.6% and Boset with 21.5% showed a significantly higher and lower infection prevalence, respectively, than the rest of the regions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in the infection prevalence (P>0.05) but infection intensity was significantly higher in donkeys 8 years old and above (P<0.0001). Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were identified.

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