India

Non Tsetse transmitted animal trypanosomosis (NTTAT) in working donkeys

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Date presented: 
Sunday 26 May 2013
Abstract

Although donkeys are considered to be more resistant to trypanosomes, they are often seen causing severe clinical disease, particularly anaemia, lethargy and boor body condition, in immuno-compromised animals due to stress from overwork, poor management practices and low quality diets. Studies made by the Donkey Sanctuary (DS) in Kenya showed a high prevalence of both tsetse and none tsetse transmitted trypanosomes. T. congolense and T. brucei sp are the most highly prevalent tsetse transmitted trypanosomes while T. vivax is the second most prevalent, next to T. congolense. Infection prevalence of T. vivax as high as 30% were diagnosed in Kenya and Ethiopia using parasitological techniques. These prevalences could have been higher had they been diagnosed using molecular techniques, as it was shown by the study made in Gambia, in which they found an infection prevalence of 87% using PCR.

Dourine is mostly diagnosed in horses from the highland regions in Ethiopia. Recent serological study made in Ethiopia, however, revealed not only in donkeys but across all agro-ecological zones. However, as the CFT does not differentiate between the infection of Dourine and Surra, it is difficult to know the true epidemiology of these diseases among equids where they both exist. Although Surra is reported in donkeys from different countries, it is not reported in donkeys in Ethiopia. However, Surra is endemic in camels in the arid and semi-arid regions of Ethiopia. The recent migration of camels to the mid-lowland areas during the dry season in search of feed might spread the disease among equids in the area.

Recent study made in Gambia by Glasgow University, funded by the DS, showed a fatal neurological syndrome among donkeys and horses caused by trypanosomosis. The aetiological agent of this emerging neurological syndrome has been established based on the presence of trypanosomes in the brain of affected animals. However, given the genetic homology between T. evansi, T. brucei brucei and T. equiperdum, it was not possible to confirm which one of these is causing this devastating condition. To solve this mystery and identify the species of trypanosome involved, study on further molecular characterization of cerebral trypanosomosis is underway in Gambia, a project funded by the DS.

The infection of trypanosomes in donkeys raises certain questions that need to be addressed. Given the high infection prevalence in the donkey population and associated diseases;

• Are they really carriers/resistant to trypanosomosis?
• The welfare implication of trypanosomosis in donkeys
• What would be the role of donkeys in the epidemiology of trypanosomosis?
• The impact of exclusion of donkeys in the control of animal trypanosomosis?

The extension and education methods implemented for sustaining the health and welfare of working donkeys in India

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Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

In India the majority of donkeys are used as pack animals to carry sand, gravel, debris and bricks especially in brick kilns and also goods up the hill in pilgrimage places. Like many of the developing countries the donkeys working in India suffer tremendous abuse, injury and pain. Harness wounds and lameness are common due to improper harness, overloading and lack of knowledge about care and management among the owners. This paper discusses the extension methods that were used and found to be effective with an aim to improve the condition of the donkeys, help them become wound free and prevent suffering. The donkey owners were given practical lessons on how to fit a harness properly, donuts (circular protectors), padding materials and how to make good U-shaped back protectors. A video film was made for this purpose and shown to the owners. Distributing soft cotton hobbles made from fabric waste prevented the hobble wounds. Re-homing abandoned donkeys to good owners and rewarding the owners for best-kept donkeys has encouraged the owners to keep their donkeys in good condition, wound free and fit. Distribution of hoof picks (modified screw drivers) encouraged owners to pick out donkeys' feet regularly to prevent lameness due to puncture wounds and hoof abscesses caused by thorns and sharp objects. Enthusiastic owners were picked and given training in basic donkey care. Efforts were taken to promote correct treatments and also encourage the use of readily available natural herbal products. A cartoon film, study materials in the form of pictures and cartoons were used to evoke interest among the donkey owner's children in basic donkey care. Public awareness included distributing storybooks, leaflets, organising camps at local agricultural and equine fairs and publishing articles in newspapers. A marked improvement in the donkeys' status, health, condition and owners care for their donkey has become a reality due to the implementation of extension and education activities.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2010

Effect of modern drugs on the environment and the role of alternative medicine

Citation

Ganesh Murugan. October 2006. Effect of modern drugs on the environment and the role of alternative medicine. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Effect of the modern drugs used extensively for treatment of humans and animals could be detrimental on the environment. The reported near extinction of several vulture species in India and "careless and casual" use of Diclofenac sodium on livestock being attributed as the cause, shows the extent and depth of this issue. Effects of drugs like Ivermectin and organophosphates in the environment need to be understood. Traditional plants have the potential to be used as alternatives, but a lot of constraints, including a lack of hard evidence to support the use of many of them, which can raise ethical concerns in using them. Environmental impact has to be considered to especially of rarer plants. This paper aims to stress the importance of pursuing alternative medicines like herbs/plant products and constraints in using them on animals are discussed. Potential natural products that could be used in place of modern medicines wherever possible especially in mobile veterinary units are discussed.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Behaviour of urban working donkeys and welfare issues: Experiences from India

Citation

Ganesh Murugan. October 2006. Behaviour of urban working donkeys and welfare issues: Experiences from India. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

The Donkey Sanctuary India's management of equine influenza in Noida and the neighbouring operational areas: A summary

Citation

P. Sushmita, Nath Surajit, Ganesh Murugan. December 2010. The Donkey Sanctuary India's management of equine influenza in Noida and the neighbouring operational areas: A summary. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

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Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Abstract

This paper gives details of how an outbreak of equine influenza in Noida and neighbouring operational areas was managed by the Donkey Sanctuary India. It was managed by establishing a probable diagnosis, confirming the existence of an outbreak, confirmatory diagnosis, and the implementation of treatment control and preventative measures.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Brooke
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

Comparison of different working equine communities: Their animal welfare and socio-economic status in Gwalior, India

Citation

Ramesh Suresh Kumar, Rajesh Tomar, Ramesh Kumar, Surajit Nath, Ganesh Murugan, Saroja Ramesh. December 2010. Comparison of different working equine communities: Their animal welfare and socio-economic status in Gwalior, India. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India. 407.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Proceedings
Number of pages: 
407
Publication date: 
31 December 2010
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