United Kingdom

Chronic pleuropulmonary fibrosis and elastosis of aged donkeys - similarities to human pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)

Citation

Amy Miele, K Dhaliwal, Nicole du Toit, J Murchison, C Dhaliwal, Harriet Brooks, Sionagh H. Smith, N Hirani, T Schwarz, C Haslett, W Wallace, Bruce McGorum. March 2014. Chronic pleuropulmonary fibrosis and elastosis of aged donkeys - similarities to human pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). Chest.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
6 March 2014
Journal: 
Chest
DOI number: 
10.1378/chest.13-1306
Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Donkey Pulmonary Fibrosis (DPF) is a spontaneous syndrome of aged donkeys with high prevalence (35%). No previous detailed characterisation of DPF has been performed. We sought to determine the similarities of DPF to recognised patterns of human pulmonary fibrosis.

METHODS:
Whole lungs were collected from 32 aged donkeys at routine necropsy. Gross examination revealed pulmonary fibrosis in 19 donkeys (DPF cases), while 13 (controls) had grossly normal lungs. Eighteen whole inflated ex vivo lungs (11 DPF, 7 controls) were imaged with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), while the remainder were sectioned and photographed. Tissue samples were collected from all lungs for histopathological evaluation using a standardised protocol. HRCT images and histology sections were reviewed independently and blindly. Lung tissue was analysed for herpes virus, fungal hyphae, mycobacteria and dust content.

RESULTS:
Ten of 19 DPF lungs were categorised as being 'consistent with' pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) according to previously defined histological and imaging criteria. All 10 PPFE-like lungs had marked pleural and subpleural fibrosis, predominantly within the upper lung zone, with accompanying intra-alveolar fibrosis and elastosis. Asinine herpesvirus (AsHV) was ubiquitously expressed within control and DPF lung tissue. No other aetiological agents were identified.

CONCLUSIONS:
Many cases of DPF share key pathological and imaging features with human PPFE, a rare interstitial pneumonia. Consequently, further study of DPF may help elucidate the aetiopathogenesis of human PPFE.

Online references

The P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole causes a reversion to sensitivity in ivermectin resistant cyathostomins in vitro

Citation

Laura Peachey, Jacqui. B. Matthews, Gina L. Pinchbeck, Faith A. Burden, Jane Hodgkinson. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole causes a reversion to sensitivity in ivermectin resistant cyathostomins in vitro. Presented at Anthelmintics: From Discovery to Resistance. (5 February - 7 February 2014). San Francisco, USA.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Thursday 6 February 2014
Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance is a growing problem in both the developed and developing world; of most concern is the level of resistance detected against the potent macrocylic lactone (ML) anthelmintics. To identify and target a common mechanism of resistance to anthelmintics would allow potential modification of existing drugs, and may even enable the prediction and prevention of the development of resistance to novel drugs. There is a growing body of evidence that P-glycoproteins (P-gps) are involved in resistance to the MLs in many parasitic nematodes of humans and veterinary species (Ardelli et al, 2011). P-gps belong to class two of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter protein superfamily; they are responsible for the active removal of xenobiotic compounds from cells. The cyathostomins are gastrointestinal nematodes of equids that cause significant pathology. Recently resistance to MLs has been described in cyathostomins (Molento et al, 2008), its mechanisms have not yet been elucidated.

Online references

The effectiveness of faecal removal methods of pasture management to control the cyathostomin burden of donkeys

Citation

Christopher J Corbett, Sandy Love, Anna Moore, Faith A. Burden, Jacqui. B. Matthews, Matthew Denwood. January 2014. The effectiveness of faecal removal methods of pasture management to control the cyathostomin burden of donkeys. Parasites and Vectors. 7:48.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
24 January 2014
Volume: 
7
Issue: 
48
DOI number: 
doi:10.1186/1756-3305-7-48
Abstract

Background: The level of anthelmintic resistance within some cyathostomin parasite populations has increased to the level where sole reliance on anthelmintic-based control protocols is not possible. Management-based nematode control methods, including removal of faeces from pasture, are widely recommended for use in association with a reduction in anthelmintic use to reduce selection pressure for drug resistance; however, very little work has been performed to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of such methods.

Methods: We analysed data obtained from 345 donkeys at The Donkey Sanctuary (Devon, UK), managed under three different pasture management techniques, to investigate the effectiveness of faeces removal in strongyle control in equids. The management groups were as follows: no removal of faeces from pasture, manual, twice weekly removal of faeces from pasture and automatic, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture (using a mechanical pasture sweeper). From turn-out onto pasture in May, monthly faecal egg counts were obtained for each donkey and the dataset subjected to an auto regressive moving average model.

Results: There was little to no difference in faecal egg counts between the two methods of faecal removal; both resulted in significantly improved cyathostomin control compared to the results obtained from the donkeys that grazed pasture from which there was no faecal removal.

Conclusions: This study represents a valuable and unique assessment of the effectiveness of the removal of equine faeces from pasture, and provides an evidence base from which to advocate twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture as an adjunct for equid nematode control. Widespread adoption of this practice could substantially reduce anthelmintic usage, and hence reduce selection pressure for nematode resistance to the currently effective anthelmintic products.

Online references

Expression of PGP 9.5 by Enteric Neurons in Horses and Donkeys with and without Intestinal Disease

Citation

Neil Hudson, G.T. Pearson, I.G. Mayhew, Christopher Proudman, Faith A. Burden, Constance Fintl. November 2013. Expression of PGP 9.5 by Enteric Neurons in Horses and Donkeys with and without Intestinal Disease. Journal of Comparative Pathology.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
26 November 2013
DOI number: 
doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.11.203
Abstract

Intestinal motility disorders are an important problem in horses and donkeys and this study was carried out in order to evaluate the enteric neurons in animals with and without intestinal disease. Surplus intestinal tissue samples were collected from 28 horses undergoing exploratory laparotomy for colic. In addition, surplus intestinal samples from 17 control horses were collected immediately following humane destruction for clinical conditions not relating to the intestinal tract. Similar samples were also collected during routine post-mortem examinations from 12 aged donkeys; six animals were humanely destroyed for conditions related to the intestinal tract, while the remaining six were humanely destroyed for other reasons including dental and orthopaedic diseases. Tissue samples were fixed in formalin and immunohistochemical labelling was performed targeting the enteric neurons using a polyclonal antibody specific for the neuronal marker PGP 9.5. The distribution and density of neuronal networks were assessed qualitatively and semiquantitatively. There was strong PGP 9.5 expression in both the horse and donkey samples and labelling was detected throughout the tissue sections. In both species, PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibres were detected in all layers of the intestinal tract, both in large and small intestinal samples. Networks of enteric neurons were present in the donkey with a similar distribution to that seen in the horse. There was no demonstrable difference in enteric neuronal density and distribution in the groups of animals with intestinal disease compared with those without, apart from two (out of 28) horses with intestinal disease that showed a marked reduction in PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity. Apart from these two animals, this total cohort analysis differs from some previously observed findings in horses with intestinal disease and may therefore reflect the different pathophysiological processes occurring in varying intestinal conditions resulting in colic both in the donkey and the horse.

Online references

Donkey assisted therapy

Citation

David Cook, Stephen Blakeway. Donkey assisted therapy. Presented at Donkey Welfare Symposium. (1 November 2013). California, USA.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Saturday 3 November 2012

Handling untrained and poorly trained donkeys

Citation

Ben Hart. Handling untrained and poorly trained donkeys. Presented at Donkey Welfare Symposium. (1 November 2013). California, USA.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Friday 1 November 2013

Nutrition and dental care of donkeys

Citation

Faith A. Burden, Nicole du Toit, Alexandra K. Thiemann. August 2013. Nutrition and dental care of donkeys. In Practice. 35. 405-410.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 August 2013
Journal: 
In Practice
Volume: 
35
Page numbers: 
405-410
DOI number: 
doi:10.1136/inp.f4367
Abstract

The domestic donkey is descended from wild asses and has evolved to live in some of the most inhospitable places on earth. Little research has been carried out to address the specific needs of the donkey, which has traditionally been viewed as a small horse. The donkey is different from the horse in many ways; of particular note is its ability to thrive on highly fibrous feeds. This article discusses the nutritional requirements of donkeys and how dental disease may play a role in determining their nutritional requirements.

Online references

Statistical assessment of risk for the clinical management of equine sarcoids in a population of Equus asinus

Citation

Stuart W. Reid, George Gettingby. Statistical assessment of risk for the clinical management of equine sarcoids in a population of Equus asinus. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 26:2. 87-95.

Authors
Publication details
Volume: 
26
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
87-95
DOI number: 
10.1016/0167-5877(95)00521-8
Online references
Syndicate content