United Kingdom

Prognostic indicators for survival of impaction colic in UK donkeys

Citation

K. A. Bunker, Ruth Cox, Christopher Proudman, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford, Gina L. Pinchbeck. Prognostic indicators for survival of impaction colic in UK donkeys. Presented at 9th International Equine Colic Research Symposium. (15 June - 18 June 2008). Liverpool, UK.

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Date presented: 
Sunday 15 June 2008

Determination of the sorption and desorption isotherms of donkey hoof horn

Citation

Lyn Hopegood, Simon N. Collins, John D. Reilly. Determination of the sorption and desorption isotherms of donkey hoof horn. Presented at Animal Science Conference 2011. (4 April - 5 April 2011). Nottingham, UK. 2:1.19.

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Date presented: 
Monday 4 April 2011
Proceedings
Volume: 
2
Issue: 
1
Number of pages: 
19

Donkey welfare internationally - current research

Citation

Faith A. Burden. Donkey welfare internationally - current research. Presented at British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2011. (7 September - 10 September 2011). Liverpool, UK.

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Date presented: 
Friday 9 September 2011

Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK

Citation

Ruth Cox, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Faith A. Burden, Gina L. Pinchbeck. February 2007. Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK. BMC Veterinary Research. 3:1.

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Publication date: 
1 February 2007
Volume: 
3
Issue: 
1
DOI number: 
10.1186/1746-6148-3-1
Abstract

Background

Colic (abdominal pain) is a clinical condition of serious concern affecting the welfare and survival of donkeys at the Donkey Sanctuary in the UK. One of the most commonly reported causes is due to impacted ingesta in the large intestine ("impaction colic"). However little is known about the incidence of, or risk factors for, this condition. Here we describe the epidemiology of colic in donkeys, specifically impaction colic. We focus on temporal aspects of the disease and we identify environmental and management related risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys.

Results

There were 807 colic episodes in the population of 4596 donkeys between January 1st 2000 and March 31st 2005. The majority (54.8%) of episodes were due to a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of impaction of the gastrointestinal tract. The mortality risk for all colics (51.1%) was higher than reported in other equids. The incidence rate of all colics (5.9 episodes per 100 donkeys per year) and of impaction colic (3.2 episodes) was similar to that in horses. A retrospective matched case-control study of all impaction colics from January 2003 (193) indicated that older donkeys, those fed extra rations and those that previously suffered colic were at increased risk of impaction. Lighter body weight, musculo-skeletal problems, farm and dental disease were also significantly associated with a diagnosis of impaction colic.

Conclusion

To our knowledge this is the first study to estimate the incidence rate of colic in a large population of donkeys in the UK. In contrast to other equids, impaction was the most commonly reported cause of colic. We identified several risk factors for impaction colic. Increasing age, extra rations and previous colic are known risk factors for colic in other equids. Results support the hypothesis that dental disease is associated with impaction colic. Musculo-skeletal problems may be associated with colic for various reasons including change in amount of exercise or time at pasture. Other associated factors (weight and farm) are the subject of further research. Identification of risk factors for impaction colic may highlight high risk donkeys and may allow intervention strategies to be introduced to reduce the incidence of the disease.

Online references

Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Susan A. Kempson, Padraic M. Dixon. June 2008. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations. The Veterinary Journal. 176:3. 345-353.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 June 2008
Volume: 
176
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
345-353
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.03.004
Abstract

Ten normal cheek teeth (CT) were extracted at post mortem from donkeys that died or were euthanased for humane reasons. Decalcified histology was performed on three sections (sub-occlusal, mid-tooth and pre-apical) of each tooth, and undecalcified histology undertaken on sub-occlusal sections of the same teeth. The normal histological anatomy of primary, regular and irregular secondary dentine was found to be similar to that of the horse, with no tertiary dentine present. Undecalcified histology demonstrated the normal enamel histology, including the presence of enamel spindles. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on mid-tooth sections of five maxillary CT, five mandibular CT and two incisors. The ultrastructural anatomy of primary and secondary dentine, and equine enamel types-1, -2 and -3 (as described in horses) were identified in donkey teeth. Histological and ultrastructural donkey dental anatomy was found to be very similar to equine dental anatomy with only a few quantitative differences observed.

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