dental disorders

Post mortem survey of dental disease in donkeys

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Susan A. Kempson, Padraic M. Dixon. Post mortem survey of dental disease in donkeys. Presented at British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2007. (12 September - 15 September 2007). Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Wednesday 12 September 2007

Post mortem survey of dental disorders in 349 donkeys from an aged population (2005-2006). Part 2: Epidemiological studies

Citation

Nicole du Toit, John Gallagher, Faith A. Burden, Padraic M. Dixon. May 2008. Post mortem survey of dental disorders in 349 donkeys from an aged population (2005-2006). Part 2: Epidemiological studies. Equine Veterinary Journal. 40:3. 209-213.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 May 2008
Volume: 
40
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
209-213
Abstract

Reason for performing study

Dental disorders have recently been recognised as having major clinical and welfare implications in donkeys. However, no investigation appears to have examined the association of dental disorders with managemental factors and any intercurrent illness.

Objectives

To determine the association of dental disorders observed in a post mortem study with age group, body condition score, time since last dental treatment, feeding and the illness that necessitated euthanasia or caused death.

Methods

A prospective study documented the type and prevalence of dental disorders in 349 mainly aged donkeys (median estimated age of 31 years) that were subjected to euthanasia over an 18 month period in 2005'Aì2006. The estimated age, body condition score, supplemental feed status, time since last dental treatment and nature of the intercurrent disease that necessitated euthanasia or caused death were also recorded. Multivariable analysis was performed to examine associations of these factors with specific dental disorders and between specific dental disorders.

Results

There was a high prevalence (93.4%) of significant dental disease. Age group was significantly associated with the presence of dental disorders and an older age range was a high risk factor for the presence of cheek teeth (CT) diastemata. There was a significant association between the presence of CT diastemata and the concurrent presence of displaced, missing and worn CT. There was also a significant association between the presence of diastemata and colic.

Conclusions and potential relevance

Aged donkeys have a high prevalence of dental disorders especially of CT diastemata. Dental disorders and, in particular, the presence of CT diastemata were significantly associated with colic. Routine, prophylactic dental treatments should be performed, especially in aged donkeys.

Dimensions of diastemata and associated periodontal food pockets in donkey cheek teeth

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Lee Gosden, Padraic M. Dixon. April 2008. Dimensions of diastemata and associated periodontal food pockets in donkey cheek teeth. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry. 26:1.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 April 2008
Volume: 
26
Issue: 
1
Abstract

Equine cheek teeth (CT) diastemata often cause deep periodontal food pocketing and are therefore regarded as a painful dental disorder of equidae. However there appears to be no information available on the size or shape of these diastemata. This post mortem study examined 16 donkey skulls (mean age = 32-years) containing 45 CT diastemata to define the anatomical shape and dimensions of these diastemata, and of the associated periodontal food pockets that occur with this disorder. Diastemata were found to more commonly involve mandibular (56.0%) compared with maxillary CT (44.0%), and 71.0% of these diastemata had adjacent intercurrent dental disorders that may have predisposed donkeys to the diastemata. The median widths of all diastemata were 2.0-mm at the occlusal surface and 3.1-mm at the gingival margin, with no diferences in widths between the lateral or medial aspects of diastemata. Diastemata were defined as open (60.00%) or valve (40.00%) based on their gross appearance. This classification was confirmed to be accurate by measurements that showed valve diastemata to have an occlusal to gingival width ratio of 0.4, in contrast to open diastemata where this ratio was 1.07. Food was impacted in 89.0% of diastemata, but all diastemata had adjacent periodontal disease. Periodontal food pocketing was present adjacent to 76.0% of diastemata, more commonly on the lateral aspect (73.0% prevalence; mean pocket depth = 4.1-mm) than the medial aspect (47.0% prevalence; mean pocket depth = 2.4-mm). The depth of periodontal pockets of diastemata was not associated with the height of the erupted crowns of adjacent CT.

Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK. Part 2: Epidemiological studies on the potential relationships between different dental disorders, and between dental disease and systemic disorders

Citation
Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 April 2009
Volume: 
41
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
395-400
Abstract

Reasons for performing study

Dental disease has been shown to be a risk factor for weight loss and colic in horses. No extensive clinical studies in donkeys have investigated the potential relationship between different dental disorders, or between dental disease and systemic disorders.

Objectives

To determine possible associations between dental disease and body condition score, weight loss, the need for supplemental feeding and prevalence of colic in donkeys of all ages, and to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of dental disease by the determination of associations between different dental disorders.

Methods

A prospective cross-sectional analysis of clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in The Donkey Sanctuary, Sidmouth was performed. Other epidemiological factors such as estimated age group, body condition score, weight loss, medical history and supplemental feeding were also recorded, and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine possible associations.

Results

Donkeys from older age groups were more likely to have dental disease, poor body condition score and suffered previous colic episodes. The presence of dental disease was also significantly associated with weight loss, colic, low body condition score and the need for supplemental feeding. The presence of diastemata, periodontal disease, wave mouth, smooth mouth and step mouth are frequently associated with the presence of other dental disorders.

Conclusions

In addition to oral-related pain, dental disease can cause significant systemic disorders and so has increased welfare implications in donkeys. Some dental disorders promote the development of other types of dental abnormalities and thus increase the severity of dental disease in individual animals. POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE: Effective treatment of dental disorders slows down the progression of dental disease and decreases the risk of developing some medical disorders such as colic and weight loss that are associated with dental disease.

Online references

Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK: Part 1: Prevalence of dental disorders

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Padraic M. Dixon. April 2009. Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK: Part 1: Prevalence of dental disorders. Equine Veterinary Journal. 41:4. 390-394.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 April 2009
Volume: 
41
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
390-394
DOI number: 
10.2746/042516409X368912
Abstract

Reasons for performing the study

Dental disorders have a high prevalence in older donkeys and horses, but the nature and pathogenesis of many of these disorders have yet to be established.

Objectives

The identification and determination of the prevalence of important dental disorders in different age groups in a large single population of donkeys, to establish a better understanding of the nature and pathogenesis of these disorders.

Methods

A prospective cross-sectional study was performed on the donkey population at The Donkey Sanctuary with detailed oral examinations of 357 donkeys within 7 different age groups (age range 2-53 years) recorded.

Results

The prevalence of dental disease in all donkeys was 73%, increasing in prevalence from 28% in the youngest to 98% in the oldest age group. There was an increase in prevalence of commonly recognised dental disorders with increasing age, such as: diastemata (3.8% in youngest to 86% in oldest group); missing teeth (0-56%); overgrown teeth (15-86%); worn teeth (8-84%); displaced teeth (0-38%); and periodontal disease (0-28%).

Conclusions

There was a significant increase in the prevalence of dental disorders with increasing age with the largest significant increase for most dental disorders occurring in the 15-20 year age group. POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE: Most dental disorders significantly increase in prevalence in the 15-20 year age group and, therefore, prophylactic geriatric dental treatment in donkeys should be commenced from age 15 years.

Online references

Pathological investigation of caries and occlusal pulpar exposure in donkey cheek teeth using Computerised Axial Tomography with Histological and ultrastructural examinations

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Susan A. Kempson, Padraic M. Dixon. December 2008. Pathological investigation of caries and occlusal pulpar exposure in donkey cheek teeth using Computerised Axial Tomography with Histological and ultrastructural examinations. The Veterinary Journal. 178:3. 387-395.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 December 2008
Volume: 
178
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
387-395
Abstract

Post-mortem examination of 16 donkey cheek teeth (CT) with caries (both peripheral and infundibular) and pulpar exposure were performed using computerised axial tomography (CAT), histology and scanning electron microscopy. CAT imaging was found to be useful to assess the presence and extent of caries and pulp exposure in individual donkey CT. Histology identified the loss of occlusal secondary dentine, and showed pulp necrosis in teeth with pulpar exposure. Viable pulp was present more apically in one exposed pulp horn, with its occlusal aspect sealed off from the exposed aspect of the pulp horn by a false pulp stone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the amelo-cemental junction to be a possible route of bacterial infection in infundibular cemental caries. The basic pathogenesis of dental caries in donkeys appears very similar to its description in other species.

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