donkey

Focal gingival hyperplasia in a donkey

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, J. F. Requicha, F. San Roman, C. Viegas, A. Gama. March 2015. Focal gingival hyperplasia in a donkey. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry. 32:1. 54-55.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 March 2015
Volume: 
32
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
54-55
DOI number: 
https://doi.org/10.1177/089875641503200106
Abstract

An 18-year old jenny was observed with a right maxillary tumefaction, presenting weight loss, quidding, dysphagia and halitosis. An external and intra oral examinations were performed. Both exams revealed a complete blockage of motion in the right mandible, due to the presence of severe shear mouth. A pedunculated mass was observed in the right maxillary vestibular space. It was speculated that the mass resulted from food debris acting as a source of gingival irritation, as a consequence of the shear mouth.
Gingival hyperplasia is a common histological feature in equids, due to close contact between an abrasive diet and oral tissues. However, on a macroscopic level, pathological proliferation of the gingival tissue is uncommon and seldom reaches significant dimensions, but still should be considered differential diagnoses when examining an equid with pertinent clinical signs, mainly when severe dental disorders are diagnosed.
This clinical case seems to be the first describing the occurrence of gingival fibrous hyperplasia apparently as a direct consequence of shear mouth in a donkey.

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Measuring conformation in mules, hinnies, and donkeys (Equus asinus) from Spanish and Portuguese populations

Citation

A. K. McLean, W. Wang, A. Heartfield, J. B. Rodrigues. May 2015. Measuring conformation in mules, hinnies, and donkeys (Equus asinus) from Spanish and Portuguese populations. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 35:5. 426-427.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 May 2015
Volume: 
35
Issue: 
5
Page numbers: 
426-427
DOI number: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2015.03.112
Abstract

Mules and hinnies are hybrid offspring of donkeys (Equus asinus) and horses (Equus caballus). Little scientific information is known regarding mules and even less is known about hinnies, the reciprocal cross. Conformation standards are in place for horses but currently are not available for equid hybrids or donkeys. Conformation maybe related to functionality and longevity of equids. All animals in this study were of similar genetics (Zamora Leones and Mirandes donkey breeds and Spanish horses) from Toro, Spain and Miranda do Douro, Portugal and used for traction.

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Pedigree and herd characterization of a donkey breed vulnerable to extinction

Citation

M. Quaresma, A. M. F. Martins, J. B. Rodrigues, J. Colaço, R. Payan-Carreira. March 2014. Pedigree and herd characterization of a donkey breed vulnerable to extinction. Animal. 8:3. 354-359.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 March 2014
Journal: 
Animal
Volume: 
8
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
354-359
Abstract

Most donkey and local horse breeds are vulnerable to extinction as mechanization of agriculture progress throughout the world. The present study analyzed the pedigree and herd records of the donkey Asinina de Miranda breed (RAM), identifying genealogical and human factors that may affect the breed genetic diversity in the future and suggesting suitable strategies to breed preservation, early on the conservation program. The breeding rate was very low, with a ratio of foaling/live animals of 0.23 (178/760). The estimated number of founders and ancestors contributing to the reference population was 128 and 121. The number of founder herds in the reference population was 64, with an effective number of founder herds for the reference population of 7.6. The mean age of herd owners was 65.50±0.884 years, with a negative association among the herd size and owner’s age (P<0.001). In contrast, the size of the herd and the ownership of a male were both positively associated (P<0.001) with the herd number of in-born foals. Both the owners’ age and the herd location (RAM home region v. dispersal region) were negatively associated with the foaling number (P<0.001). The main identified risk factors were: low breeding rates; low number of males and their unequal contribution to the genetic pool; unequal contribution of the herds to genetic pool; and advanced age of herd owners.
Published online: 13 December 2013

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A clinical survey on the prevalence and types of cheek teeth disorders present in 400 Zamorano-Leonés and 400 Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus)

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, Padraic M. Dixon, E. Bastos, F. San Roman, C. Viegas. November 2013. A clinical survey on the prevalence and types of cheek teeth disorders present in 400 Zamorano-Leonés and 400 Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus). Veterinary Record. 173:23. 581.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
4 November 2013
Journal: 
Veterinary Record
Volume: 
173
Issue: 
23
Page numbers: 
581
Abstract

Dental disease is now recognised as a major but often unrecognised disorder of equids, including horses and donkeys. However, very few large clinical studies have documented the prevalence and type of dental disease present in different equid populations and no dental studies have been reported in Zamorano-Leonés or Mirandês donkeys, two endangered donkey breeds. Clinical and detailed oral examinations were performed in 400 Mirandês and 400 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys in Portugal and Spain. It was found that just 4.5 per cent had ever received any previous dental care. Cheek teeth (CT) disorders were present in 82.8 per cent of these donkeys, ranging from a prevalence of 29.6 per cent in the <2.5-year-old group to 100 per cent in the >25-year-old group. These CT disorders included enamel overgrowths (73.1 per cent prevalence but with just 6.3 per cent having associated soft tissue injuries), focal overgrowths (37.3 per cent), periodontal disease (23.5 per cent) and diastemata (19.9 per cent). Peripheral caries was present in 5.9 per cent of cases, but inexplicably, infundibular caries was very rare (1.3 per cent prevalence); this may have been due to their almost fully foraged diet. The high prevalence of enamel overgrowths in these donkeys, most which never received concentrates, also raises questions about the aetiology of this disorder. This very high prevalence of CT disorders, especially in older donkeys, was of great welfare concern in some cases and emphasises the need for routine dental care in these cases on welfare grounds and in order to help preserve these unique breeds.

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Analysis of new Matrilin-1 gene variants in a case-control study related to dental malocclusions in Equus asinus

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, S. Araujo, H. Guedes-Pinto, F. San Roman, C. Viegas, E. Bastos. June 2013. Analysis of new Matrilin-1 gene variants in a case-control study related to dental malocclusions in Equus asinus. Gene. 522:1. 702-74.

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Publication date: 
10 June 2013
Journal: 
Gene
Volume: 
522
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
702-74
Abstract

Prognathism and brachygnathism are craniofacial deformities that severely affect the health of human and vertebrates, such as donkeys. The multifactorial etiology of this disease makes the genetic analysis a powerful tool for its understanding and prevention of spreading these deformities.
This study aims to contribute to the characterization of the genetic basis of prognathism and brachygnathism in donkeys, using the Zamorano-Leonés donkey, an endangered Spanish breed, as a model. Matrilin-1 (MATN1) polymorphisms have been previously described as markers for mandibular prognathism in Korean and Japanese human populations. Genetic variations in MATN1 gene were sought, in order to verify its association in a case–control study, including 30 donkeys presenting brachygnathism, 30 donkeys presenting prognathism and 30 donkeys with normal occlusion phenotypes. One genetic variation (g503G > A) located in an intronic region of MATN1 gene was identified and characterized. Statistically significant differences were detected between the control group and prognathism cases, but no statistical significant results were found between the control group and the brachygnathism cases. These results support evidence for an important role of MATN1 on prognathism in the analyzed population with MATN1 genetic variation – 503G > A – having a protective effect. Further studies should be developed in order to understand the whole role of MATN1 and the mechanisms affected by its genetic variations

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Percutaneous approach for sialolith removal in a donkey

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, S. Mora, E. Bastos, C. Viegas, F. San Roman. March 2013. Percutaneous approach for sialolith removal in a donkey. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry. 30:1. 32-35.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 March 2013
Volume: 
30
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
32-35
Abstract

Salivary duct lithiasis is a condition characterized by the partial or total obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct due to the formation of sialoliths. A 9-year-old female donkey, belonging to the unique and endangered indigenous breed of donkey in Portugal, was diagnosed with a sialolith in the rostral portion of the right parotid duct based on clinical, oral, dental, and radiographic examination results. Surgical removal of the sialolith was done through a percutaneous approach.

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Polyodontia in donkeys

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, F. Sanroman-Llorens, E. Bastos, F. San Roman, C. Viegas. March 2013. Polyodontia in donkeys. Equine Veterinary Education. 25:7. 363-367.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
24 March 2013
Volume: 
25
Issue: 
7
Page numbers: 
363-367
DOI number: 
10.1111/eve.12030  
Abstract

Polyodontia is defined as the presence of teeth in excess of the normal dental formula. In equids, supernumerary teeth are uncommon but, when present, are usually located mainly in the caudal aspects of the cheek teeth rows (distomolars), also being found adjacent to normal cheek teeth or even in an ectopic location. It is believed that this disorder is a result of an inappropriate differentiation of dental germinal tissue during gestational development, with external trauma also acting as an initiating factor, when teeth germs are affected. The presence of these abnormal teeth can lead to axial displacement, dental overgrowths, dental-related soft tissue damage, diastemata formation, periodontal disease and development of secondary sinusitis. A large prospective, cross-sectional study was performed in 800 donkeys, with the aim to investigate the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of clinically diagnosed oral and dental disorders. Polyodontia was recorded in 2.25% of the donkeys, presenting 36 supernumerary teeth, with 2.80% being incisors and 97.20% cheek teeth, with prevalence increasing with age. The caudal aspects of the maxillary cheek teeth rows were the most common locations for supernumerary teeth development (distomolars). The mandible was far less commonly affected than the maxilla. Although polyodontia is uncommon in donkeys, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental disease. A methodical oral examination and a complete radiographic survey of the entire dental arcades are crucial for a correct early diagnosis and treatment plan implementation. The increasing prevalence of fully erupted supernumerary teeth recorded in older groups suggested a late onset eruption process, and therefore, in donkeys undergoing regular dental prophylaxis, the presence of previously unnoticed supernumerary teeth should always be sought.

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A clinical survey evaluating the prevalence of incisor disorders in Zamorano-Leonés and Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus)

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, S. Araujo, F. Sanroman-Llorens, E. Bastos, F. San Roman, C. Viegas. September 2013. A clinical survey evaluating the prevalence of incisor disorders in Zamorano-Leonés and Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus). Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 33:9. 710-718.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 September 2013
Volume: 
33
Issue: 
9
Page numbers: 
710-718
Abstract

Recent clinical and post-mortem studies documented a high prevalence of dental disorders in donkeys, but less information appears to be available specifically about incisor disorders in donkeys. A study to investigate the prevalence of oral and dental disorders affecting incisor teeth was performed, in two endangered breeds of donkeys: the Mirandês Donkey and the Zamorano-Leonés Donkey, through a prospective cross-sectional study in 800 donkeys, divided in 7 age groups (ranging 0-34 years), in 86 villages inside their geographic area of distribution, thinking on welfare and genetic preservation issues. The 74% of donkeys suffer from incisors disorders, ranging from 56.8% in the youngest group to 90.3% in group 7. Craniofacial abnormalities (49.25%), abnormalities in the occlusal surface (21.63%), fractures (17%), periodontal disease (16.13%) and diastemata (14.38%) were the main disorders recorded. Incisors disorders are significant, presenting at a much higher prevalence when compared to other studies involving the incisor teeth of equids, affecting all ages but particularly in older animals. This study provide essential information in dentistry applied to donkeys but also highlighted the importance of regular dental care in endangered breeds, improving their welfare and preserving a unique genetic heritage.

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Seasonal variation of strongylosis in working donkeys of Ethiopia: a cross-sectional and longitudinal studies

Citation
Publication details
Publication date: 
24 May 2017
Page numbers: 
1-7
DOI number: 
10.1007/s00436-017-5485-z
Abstract

Helminths are one of the major health problems of working donkeys, often with heavy worm burden and contributing to their early demise and/or reduction in their work output. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were conducted to investigate the current infection prevalence and level of strongyles infection donkeys would acquire through different seasons in the mid-lowland agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. For this purpose, faecal samples from 206 (cross-sectional study) and 102 (longitudinal study) randomly selected donkeys were directly collected from the rectum and analysed. For the longitudinal study, the 102 donkeys dewormed at the end of main rainy season, beginning of October, were monitored for the level of strongyle infection they would acquire during subsequent dry and short rainy seasons. The cross-sectional study of 206 donkey has revealed an overall infection prevalence of 89.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 84.4, 92.9). Donkeys in the lowland zone showed a significantly higher strongyle infection prevalence (P = 0.0126) and mean eggs per gramme of faces (EPG) (P = 0.001; 2775 EPG) compared to donkeys in the midland zone (980.8 EPG). Age, sex and body condition did not have any significant effect on either the infection prevalence or level of infection (P > 0.05). The longitudinal study has shown a significantly lower strongyle infection prevalence (P = 0.003) and level of infection donkeys acquired (P = 0.001) in the subsequent dry and short rainy seasons compared to the main rainy season following October deworming. However, these values were not significantly different between the two agro-ecological zones (P > 0.05). This study clearly showed that parasitic infections are primarily acquired during the main rainy season when pasture/herbage coverage is relatively better, and the environment is conducive for parasites survival and development. On the other hand, the finding of majority of donkeys shedding low or no eggs during the dry and short rainy seasons showed that October deworming was effective, and donkeys acquire low or no parasitic infection during the subsequent dry and short rainy seasons. Therefore, the practice of anthelmintic treatment of donkeys at the end of short rain in May may not be necessary, and October deworming once a year is sufficient.

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Management practices and milk production in dairy donkey farms distributed over the Italian territory

Citation

Francesca Dar, Giulia Segati, Emanueala Dalla Costa, Faith A. Burden, Andrew Judge, Michela Minero. April 2017. Management practices and milk production in dairy donkey farms distributed over the Italian territory. Macedonian Veterinary Review. 40:2. 1-4.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
6 April 2017
Volume: 
40
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
1-4
DOI number: 
10.1515/macvetrev-2017-0016
Abstract

Limited information is available about the actual management characteristics of dairy donkeys in Southern Europe. The aim of the present study is to describe animal management of dairy donkey farms in Italy. Twelve farmers were asked to answer a questionnaire on the management of their animals and their farms distributed over the Italian territory. Six farms grouped their animals in paddocks according to the production characteristics (e.g. lactating, dry, stallions); three farms housed the stallions in single boxes. Most of the visited farms were family run and the number of animals cared for by a single person varied from five to 103 animals. All the farms but one performed mechanical milking with a modified goat milkmaid.Vaccinations were regularly performed only on two farms. All the foals received colostrum and suckled from their own mothers. Foals were nursed by their mother until 6-12 months old. During the separation period before milking, foals were usually (83%) housed in paddocks near their mothers with the possibility of visual and/or tactile contact, however such separations could be for up to 12 hours (17%). Even though the assessed sample was small, considerable differences were seen between farms, likely due to lack of uniform information available for the farmers. The adoption of scientific based procedures is suggested in order to improve both animal welfare and milk quality.

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