donkey

The Donkey Sanctuary India's management of equine influenza in Noida and the neighbouring operational areas: A summary

Citation

P. Sushmita, Nath Surajit, Ganesh Murugan. 29 November 2010. The Donkey Sanctuary India's management of equine influenza in Noida and the neighbouring operational areas: A summary. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Abstract

This paper gives details of how an outbreak of equine influenza in Noida and neighbouring operational areas was managed by the Donkey Sanctuary India. It was managed by establishing a probable diagnosis, confirming the existence of an outbreak, confirmatory diagnosis, and the implementation of treatment control and preventative measures.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Brooke
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

Development of a quantitative multivariable radiographic method to evaluate anatomic changes associated with laminitis in the forefeet of donkeys

Citation

Simon N. Collins, Sue J. Dyson, Rachel C. Murray, Richard Newton, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford. August 2012. Development of a quantitative multivariable radiographic method to evaluate anatomic changes associated with laminitis in the forefeet of donkeys. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 73:8. 1207-1218.

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Publication date: 
8 August 2012
Volume: 
73
Issue: 
8
Page numbers: 
1207-1218
DOI number: 
10.2460/ajvr.73.8.1207
Abstract

Objective—To establish and validate an objective method of radiographic diagnosis of anatomic changes in laminitic forefeet of donkeys on the basis of data from a comprehensive series of radiographic measurements.

Animals—85 donkeys with and 85 without forelimb laminitis for baseline data determination; a cohort of 44 donkeys with and 18 without forelimb laminitis was used for validation analyses.

Procedures—For each donkey, lateromedial radiographic views of 1 weight-bearing forelimb were obtained; images from 11 laminitic and 2 nonlaminitic donkeys were excluded (motion artifact) from baseline data determination. Data from an a priori selection of 19 measurements of anatomic features of laminitic and nonlaminitic donkey feet were analyzed by use of a novel application of multivariate statistical techniques. The resultant diagnostic models were validated in a blinded manner with data from the separate cohort of laminitic and nonlaminitic donkeys.

Results—Data were modeled, and robust statistical rules were established for the diagnosis of anatomic changes within laminitic donkey forefeet. Component 1 scores ≤ −3.5 were indicative of extreme anatomic change, and scores from −2.0 to 0.0 denoted modest change. Nonlaminitic donkeys with a score from 0.5 to 1.0 should be considered as at risk for laminitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the radiographic procedures evaluated can be used for the identification, assessment, and monitoring of anatomic changes associated with laminitis. Screening assessments by use of this method may enable early detection of mild anatomic change and identification of at-risk donkeys.

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The effect of pasture restriction on dry matter intake of foraging donkeys in the UK

Citation

Stephanie J. Wood, David Smith. 20 June 2012. The effect of pasture restriction on dry matter intake of foraging donkeys in the UK. Presented at 6th European Workshop on Equine Nutrition. (20 June - 22 June 2012). Lisbon, Portugal.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Wednesday 20 June 2012
Abstract

Anecdotal evidence from animal charities indicates that the number of overweight donkeys in the UK is increasing. Donkeys commonly have daily access to pasture therefore knowledge of grass intake is essential if feeding advice is to be relevant. The effects of herbage mass and length of grazing time on diet composition and dry matter intake (DMI) by mature donkeys were determined.

There were two measurement periods: period 1 during autumn when pasture was sparse (herbage mass 92 + 7g DM/m2) and period 2 during summer when pasture was more abundant (herbage mass 197 + 12g DM/m2). Twenty mature donkeys were selected and split into three grazing groups (8, 12 and 23 h daily grazing access). Barley straw was fed ad libitum and each donkey was given 150mg per day of an n-alkane marker Dotriacontane (C32) for the 12 d of each study period.
Herbage mass significantly affected total DMI and diet composition. During summer DMI of donkeys in the 8 and 23h groups was significantly greater than during autumn (P<0.05). The proportion of grass in the diets of all donkeys was also greater in summer compared to autumn (P<0.001). Grazing time did not significantly influence total daily DMI during either season due to donkeys consuming more straw when grass intake was reduced. Restricting donkeys to 12h or less grazing per day in summer significantly (P<0.001) reduced their grass intake compared to that of donkeys with 23h access. When grazing sparse pastures (autumn) time allowed for grazing did not influence grass intake. The results show that time allowed for grazing per se was less important than the herbage mass available to the donkey in terms of grass DMI.

Mind the gap: Spatial perseveration by horses, donkeys and mules in a simple detour task

Citation

Britta Osthaus, Faith A. Burden, Ian Hocking, Leanne Proops. 28 June 2012. Mind the gap: Spatial perseveration by horses, donkeys and mules in a simple detour task. Presented at ASAB Interdisciplinary Workshop: Physical Cognition and Problem Solving. (27 June - 28 June 2012). Birmingham, UK.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Thursday 28 June 2012
Abstract

We compared spatial problem solving abilities in the mule (Equus asinus x Equus caballus) with that of its parent species to assess the effects of hybridization on cognition. In a detour task the animals(N=48) were required to make a detour through a gap at one end of a straight barrier in order to reach a visible target. After one, two, three or four repeats (A trials), the gap was moved to the opposite end of the barrier (B trials) and deviations from the straight line and the latency to crossing the barrier were recorded. Mules performed significantly above chance level on their first detour, unlike the other two species. We discuss our results with reference to hybrid vigour and to the flexibility of problem solving strategies with regards to species differences.

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Semi-longitudinal study of trypanosomiasis and its vectors in donkeys (equus africanus asinus, fitzinger) in the Lamu archipelago

Citation

Phoebe Mukiria, Raymond Mdachi, J. Thuita, James Mutuku, Kennedy Wanjala, J. Omolo, Mulugeta Getachew, Andrew F. Trawford, Johnson Ouma, Grace Murilla. 8 November 2010. Semi-longitudinal study of trypanosomiasis and its vectors in donkeys (equus africanus asinus, fitzinger) in the Lamu archipelago. Presented at 12th KARI Biennial Scientific Conference. (8 November - 12 November 2010). Loresho, Nairobi, Kenya.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 8 November 2010
Abstract

Kenya is home to some 600,000 donkeys that are found virtually in all ecological zones where they provide transport and draught power. In the Lamu archipelago where there is no motorised transport, donkeys are virtually the only available means of transport helping to transport farm produce, building materials and for getting from one place to the next. This study was conducted in April (dry season) and November 2009 (wet season) in four villages in Pate Island to investigate the prevalence and species of trypanosomes infecting donkeys and to identify the fly vectors playing a role in the transmission of trypanosomosis. Blood samples were collected from 288 and 319 donkeys and examined by buffy coat technique (BCT) and Giemsa stained blood smears. Trypanosomes were encountered in 3.1 and 7.5% of the examined donkeys in the dry and wet season respectively and there was no difference in the prevalence between villages during both seasons (p=0.159 and 0.709) but there was a significant difference (p=0.006) between seasons. Three species of trypanosomes detected were, in order of predominance were Trypanosoma congolense Broden (68.7%), Trypanosoma vivax Ziemann (21.8%) and Trypanosoma brucei Plimmer and Bradford (6.2%). Another 6.2% were mixed infections. There difference in mean PCVs between trypanosome infected and non-infected donkeys dry and wet seasons ranging significant to highly significant (p<0.05 and p<0.001) respectively. Trypanosome infection had a significant effect on mean body condition score of the donkeys during both seasons (p<0.05 and p<0.001). Prevalence of trypanosome infection was found to be independent of sex and age. However, mean PCV was significantly associated with age, sex and body condition scores. The entomological surveys revealed the presence of Glossina pallidipes Austen and other biting flies namely Stomoxys spp Linnaeus, Tabanus spp. Linnaeus, and Haematopota spp Linnaeus. Though the use of BCT for detection of trypanosomes in the field is
almost universal, it has limited application especially in chronic infections and the field samples are in the process of being analysed using PCR to give a more accurate picture of the prevalence and as it relates to health and productivity of donkeys.

Molluscum contagiosum in two donkeys

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Citation

Richard Fox, Alexandra K. Thiemann, D. Everest, Falko Steinbach, A. Dastjerdi, C. Finnegan. February 2012. Molluscum contagiosum in two donkeys. Veterinary Record.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2012
Journal: 
Veterinary Record
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.100721
Online references

Stubborn donkey or smart ass?

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Citation

Ben Hart. 9 May 2012. Stubborn donkey or smart ass?. Presented at Donkey Conference. (8 May - 9 May 2012). London, UK.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Wednesday 9 May 2012
Event name: 
Donkey Conference
Abstract

Does the evolutionary history of donkeys lead to behaviours that are misunderstood and contribute to the donkeys’ reputation for being stubborn?

The behaviour of donkeys is an understudied subject. The donkey’s behaviour is commonly misunderstood principally because their behaviour is compared to that of the horse, rather than viewed as a separate species. Mistreatment of donkeys takes place because of the subtle behaviour patterns and stoic nature which are overlooked by handlers and observers who are more familiar with horse behaviour. By looking at the domesticated donkeys’ evolutionary niche and the behaviour of both free living donkeys and domesticated donkeys it possible to explain the different behaviours of donkeys and to lay to rest their reputation for stubbornness and their misrepresentation as small horses with big ears.

This presentation will examine the behaviour of donkeys in the wild, the effects of environment on social structure in Asiatic and African asses, and the effects on behaviour of solitary living and territory guarding both in the wild and domestic situation.

Social relations in a mixed group of mules, ponies and donkeys reflect differences in equid type

Citation

Leanne Proops, Faith A. Burden, Britta Osthaus. May 2012. Social relations in a mixed group of mules, ponies and donkeys reflect differences in equid type. Behavioural Processes.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
10 May 2012
DOI number: 
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2012.03.012
Abstract

Donkeys and mules are frequently kept as companion animals for horses and ponies, with these different equids often being considered a homogenous group. However, the extent to which domestic equids form inter-specific bonds and display similar social behaviour when living in a mixed herd has not previously been studied. Here we compare the social organization of these three (sub)species when housed together, providing the first systematic analysis of how genetic hybridization is expressed in the social behaviour of mules. A group of 16 mules, donkeys and ponies was observed for 70 h and preferred associates, dominance rank and the linearity of the group’s hierarchy was determined. The different equids formed distinct affiliative groups that were ordered in a linear hierarchy with ponies as the most dominant, mules in the middle ranks and donkeys in the lowest ranks. Within each equid subgroup, the strength of the hierarchy also varied. Thus in the present study, the three (sub)species displayed different social organization and levels of dominance and preferred to associate with animals of the same equid type, given the opportunity. These results suggest that different domestic equid (sub) species display variations in social behaviour that are likely to have a strong genetic basis.

Online references

Equine cestodosis: A sero-epidemiological study of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Feseha Gebreab, Stuart W. Reid, Faith A. Burden, Sandy Love. February 2012. Equine cestodosis: A sero-epidemiological study of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in Ethiopia. Veterinary Research Communications.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
4 February 2012
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11259-012-9516-z
Abstract

A 12/13 kDa antigen, tapeworm ELISA test, developed for use in horses, was used to detect parasite-specific serum antibody, IgG(T), in the serum of donkeys. In a pilot study the 12/13 kDa antigen was tested and proved to detect the antibody, IgG(T), in donkey sera. Blood samples from 797 donkeys, naturally exposed to cestode infection, from four geographical localities were collected and sera were prepared and analysed. There was substantial serological evidence that donkeys were potentially infected with A. perfoliata. A range of ELISA OD values were obtained from the serological assay. Over 26% and 7.5% of the donkeys were moderately and highly infected, respectively, showing at least a 34% sero-prevalence. The rest, 66.1%, were either with low infection intensity or negative for A. perfoliata infection. The risk of infections, both in sero-prevalence and intensity, as determined by ELISA optical density (OD), were highest in the highland areas of Ethiopia where pastures are low-lying and wet, and permanent pasture management is regularly practised. Sex, age and body condition of the donkeys had no significant effect either on prevalence of the infection or on the serum antibody level. These results indicate a risk of intestinal disorders, particularly, colic, associated with A. perfoliata infection in donkeys.

Online references

Morphology and diagnosis of some fourth-stage larvae of cyathostomins (nematoda: strongyloidea) in donkeys, Equus asinus, from Ethiopia

Citation

Victor A. Kharchencko, Tetyana K. Kuzmina, Andrew F. Trawford, Mulugeta Getachew, Feseha Gebreab. January 2009. Morphology and diagnosis of some fourth-stage larvae of cyathostomins (nematoda: strongyloidea) in donkeys, Equus asinus, from Ethiopia. Systematic Parasitology. 72:1. 1-13.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2009
Volume: 
72
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
1-13
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