donkey

Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Feseha Gebreab, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid. January 2010. Gastrointestinal parasites of working donkeys in Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 4:1. 1-13.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2010
Volume: 
4
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
1-13
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11250-009-9381-0
Abstract

The general prevalence and population composition of gastrointestinal and pulmonary helminths of working donkeys were studied. For the purpose 2935 working donkeys were coprologically examined for nematode and cestode, and 215 donkeys for trematode infections. Seven donkeys that died due to various health problems or were euthanased on a welfare ground were necropsied and the parasites were recovered and identified to the species level. The study was conducted during the periods 1996-1999.

Coprological examination revealed 99% strongyle, 80% Fasciola, 51% Parascaris, 30% Gastrodiscus, 11% Strongyloides westeri, 8% cestodes and 2% Oxyuris equi infection prevalence. Over 55% of donkeys had more than 1000 eggs per gram of faeces (epg). Forty two different species of parasites consisting of 33 nematodes, 3 trematodes, 3 cestodes and 3 arthropod larvae were identified from postmortem examined donkeys. Among the nematodes 17 species of Cyathostominae and 7 species of Strongylinae were identified. Other parasites identified include, Habronema muscae, Draschia megastoma, Trichostrongylus axei, Strongyloides westeri, Anoplocephala perfoliata, Anoplocephala magna, Anoplocephaloides (Paranoplocephala) mamillana, Parascaris equorum, Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica, Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, Oxyuris equi, Probstmayria vivipara, Gasterophilus intestinalis, Gasterophilus nasalis, Rhinoestrus uzbekistanicus and Setaria equina. This study revealed that working donkeys in Ethiopia are infected with a range of helminths and arthropod larvae, which are representatives of the important pathogenic parasites found in equids worldwide.

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Hyena bite: A potential threat to the lives of working donkeys in central Ethiopia

Citation

Mersha Tesfaye, Feseha Gebreab, E. Bojia, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Ayele, B. Amare, N. Dereje, C. Chala, A. Abebe, Joe Anzuino, Andrew F. Trawford, Mulugeta Getachew. 29 October 2006. Hyena bite: A potential threat to the lives of working donkeys in central Ethiopia. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 5.244-249.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Sunday 29 October 2006
Proceedings
Volume: 
5
Number of pages: 
244-249
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
29 October 2006

A sero-epidemiological study of equine tapeworm, A. perfoliata, in donkeys in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Andrew F. Trawford, Feseha Gebreab, Stuart W. Reid, Sandy Love. 22 January 2006. A sero-epidemiological study of equine tapeworm, A. perfoliata, in donkeys in Ethiopia. Presented at 9th Congress of the World Equine Veterinary Association. (22 January - 26 January 2006). Marrakech, Morocco. 9.263.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Sunday 22 January 2006
Proceedings
Volume: 
9
Number of pages: 
263

Principal health problems of donkeys in Dugda Bora district of Ethiopia

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Citation

G. Ayele, Feseha Gebreab, E. Bojia, Mulugeta Getachew, Alemayehu Fanta, Mersha Tesfaye, B. Amare, N. Dereje, C. Chala, A. Asefa, Joe Anzuino, Andrew F. Trawford. 29 November 2006. Principal health problems of donkeys in Dugda Bora district of Ethiopia. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 5.7.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Wednesday 29 November 2006
Proceedings
Volume: 
5
Number of pages: 
7
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
29 November 2006

Clinical approach to castration in the donkey

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Citation

Tess Sprayson, Alexandra K. Thiemann. January 2007. Clinical approach to castration in the donkey. In Practice. 29. 526-531.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2007
Journal: 
In Practice
Volume: 
29
Page numbers: 
526-531
DOI number: 
10.1136/inpract.29.9.526
Abstract

Donkeys maintain a special status in the minds of the UK animal-owning population in that, although they are physically large animals, they are usually regarded by their owners as companion animals in the same vein as dogs and cats. This dichotomy can bring about clinical challenges rarely seen with other species. Although most conditions affecting donkeys are similar to those occurring in horses, donkeys by their very nature can behave differently in the face of disease. Hence, some clinical presentations that would ordinarily be dismissed in other equids must be considered as medical/surgical emergencies in the donkey. This article, the first in an occasional series discussing the clinical approach to problems in the donkey, describes the options for castration, and offers practical advice on how to avoid some common pitfalls and potentially fatal complications that are specific to this species.

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Gasterophilosis: a major cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid, Sandy Love. August 2011. Gasterophilosis: a major cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
27 August 2011
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11250-011-9961-7
Abstract

A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the cause of rectal prolapse in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Analysis of data on rectal prolapse cases obtained from the Donkey Health and Welfare Project clinic at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University, from 1995 to 2004 revealed that 83.6% (n=177) of the cases were associated with Gasterophilus nasalis. The rest 10.7% and 5.7% were associated with work-related (overloading) cause and diarrhoea, respectively. The mean and median numbers of G. nasalis recovered from the rectum of infected donkeys were 66 and 64, respectively, with a range of 2–195. Over 100 G. nasalis larvae were recovered from the rectum of 22% of the donkeys. Circular demarcated ulcer-like and deep circumferential pits or ring-like mucosal lesions were found at the larval attachment sites. G. nasalis infection and the associated rectal prolapse were observed year round. However, the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal prolapse were significantly higher
during the rainy season (P<0.01). Age and sex of the donkeys had no significant effect on the intensity of rectal larval infection and incidence of rectal prolapse (P>0.05).

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Respiratory disease in the donkey

Citation

Alexandra K. Thiemann. September 2012. Respiratory disease in the donkey. Equine Veterinary Education. 24:9. 469-478.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 September 2012
Volume: 
24
Issue: 
9
Page numbers: 
469-478
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3292.2011.00292.x
Abstract

The donkey suffers from a similar range of respiratory diseases as the horse; however, there are a number of subtle variations, knowledge of which can influence the success of treatment. As an animal adapted to a semi-arid terrain, there are variations in physiology, anatomy and disease susceptibility. The nonathletic nature of the donkey means that delayed presentation is common with many diseases and, while there may be enhanced resistance to some transboundary and parasitic diseases, there may be equal or increased severity of illness to some endemic diseases, e.g. equine influenza. Donkeys frequently live to geriatric ages and the clinician should be aware of the increased risk of conditions such as tracheal collapse, fibrosing pneumonia and neoplasia in this age group. As with any condition that causes stress and inappetance, respiratory disease in the donkey may be complicated by hyperlipaemia and good nursing care is an essential component of treatment.

Online references

Hyperlipemia in a Population of Aged Donkeys: Description, Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors

Citation

Faith A. Burden, Nicole du Toit, Elizabeth Hazell-Smith, Andrew F. Trawford. August 2011. Hyperlipemia in a Population of Aged Donkeys: Description, Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 August 2011
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00798.x
Abstract

Background: Hyperlipemia is a common disorder of the donkey, with mortality rates of up to 80% reported. Such a poor prognosis makes prevention of this disorder or amelioration in the early stages crucial.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of hyperlipemia in a population of donkeys and to determine risk factors for development of the disease.

Animals: A total of 449 cases were investigated from a population of 3829 donkeys; donkeys were resident at The Donkey Sanctuary, a charity providing refuge for unwanted donkeys in the UK. Animals were selected on the basis of presence of clinical disease.

Methods: A retrospective case–control study design was used, and all donkeys presenting with hyperlipemia over a 4-year period were included. Each case was matched with 2 controls that had not suffered from hyperlipemia in the previous month. Multivariable analysis was carried out to determine risk factors.

Results: A total of 449 clinical cases of hyperlipemia were reported with an associated mortality rate of 48.5%. Concurrent disease was present in 72% of donkeys and was the greatest risk factor (OR = 76.98); others included cardboard bedding (OR = 3.86), movement (OR = 3.94), weight loss (OR = 6.4), dental disease (OR = 1.73), and concentrate feeding (OR = 1.87).

Conclusions: This study shows that this population of donkeys in the UK often develops hyperlipemia, particularly in response to stress or primary illness, and provides useful insights in to health and management risk factors that may be addressed to decrease the risk of hyperlipemia both in the study population and in other similar donkey populations.

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