donkey

Vaccination of sarcoid-bearing donkeys with chimeric virus-like particles of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1

Citation

S. G. Ashrafi, K. Piuko, Faith A. Burden, ZhengQiang Yuan, Elizabeth A. Gault, Matthias Müller, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid, Lubna Nasir, M. Saveria Campo. January 2008. Vaccination of sarcoid-bearing donkeys with chimeric virus-like particles of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1. Journal of General Virology. 89:1. 148-157.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2008
Volume: 
89
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
148-157
DOI number: 
10.1099/vir.0.83267-0
Abstract

Equine sarcoids are fibroblastic skin tumours affecting equids worldwide. While the pathogenesis is not entirely understood, infection with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 (and less commonly type 2) has been implicated as a major factor in the disease process. Sarcoids very seldom regress and in fact often recrudesce following therapy. Nothing is known about the immune response of the equine host to BPV. Given that the viral genes are expressed in sarcoids, it is reasonable to assume that vaccination of animals against the expressed viral proteins would lead to the induction of an immune response against the antigens and possible tumour rejection. To this end we vaccinated sarcoid-bearing donkeys in a placebo-controlled trial using chimeric virus-like particles (CVLPs) comprising BPV-1 L1 and E7 proteins. The results show a tendency towards enhanced tumour regression and reduced progression in the vaccinated group compared to control animals. Although promising, further studies are required with larger animal groups to definitely conclude that vaccination with CVLPs is a potential therapy for the induction of sarcoid regression.

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Comparison of the microhardness of enamel, primary and regular secondary dentine of the incisors of donkeys and horses

Citation

Nicole du Toit, B. Bezensek, Padraic M. Dixon. June 2008. Comparison of the microhardness of enamel, primary and regular secondary dentine of the incisors of donkeys and horses. Veterinary Record. 162:9. 272-275.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 June 2008
Journal: 
Veterinary Record
Volume: 
162
Issue: 
9
Page numbers: 
272-275
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.162.9.272
Abstract

The microhardness of the enamel, primary dentine and regular secondary dentine of seven donkey and six horse incisors was determined with a Knoop indenter at the subocclusal and mid-tooth level. The mean microhardnesses of the donkey incisor enamel, primary dentine and secondary dentine were 264·6 63·00 and 53·6 Knoop Hardness Number, respectively. There was no significant difference between the microhardness of the enamel and primary dentine on the incisors of the donkeys and horses, but the microhardness of the regular secondary dentine of the donkeys' incisors at the mid-tooth level was slightly but significantly less than that of the horses. There was also a difference in the microhardness of the secondary dentine between the subocclusal and mid-tooth levels in both donkey and horse incisors.

Because most donkeys live well beyond 30 years of age (Crane 1997), it has been proposed that their teeth may be harder than the teeth of horses, wear more slowly, and thus remain functional for longer (Misk and Seilem 1999). There have been studies of dental microhardness in human beings (Craig and Peyton 1958, Collys and others 1992), sheep (Suckling 1979), cattle (Attin and others 1997) and horses (Muylle and others 1999b). In horses, there are differences between breeds in the rate of dental wear caused by attrition (Muylle and others 1997, 1998) and in the microhardness of enamel and secondary dentine (Muylle and others 1999b), which could account for these differences. It is proposed that there may be a similar difference between the microhardness of the teeth of donkeys and horses that may contribute to the less rapid attrition of donkey teeth.

The aim of this study was to compare the microhardness of the enamel and primary and secondary dentine of the incisor teeth of donkeys and horses, to determine whether there was a significant difference between them.

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Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Susan A. Kempson, Padraic M. Dixon. June 2008. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 2: Histological and scanning electron microscopic examinations. The Veterinary Journal. 176:3. 345-353.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 June 2008
Volume: 
176
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
345-353
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.03.004
Abstract

Ten normal cheek teeth (CT) were extracted at post mortem from donkeys that died or were euthanased for humane reasons. Decalcified histology was performed on three sections (sub-occlusal, mid-tooth and pre-apical) of each tooth, and undecalcified histology undertaken on sub-occlusal sections of the same teeth. The normal histological anatomy of primary, regular and irregular secondary dentine was found to be similar to that of the horse, with no tertiary dentine present. Undecalcified histology demonstrated the normal enamel histology, including the presence of enamel spindles. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on mid-tooth sections of five maxillary CT, five mandibular CT and two incisors. The ultrastructural anatomy of primary and secondary dentine, and equine enamel types-1, -2 and -3 (as described in horses) were identified in donkey teeth. Histological and ultrastructural donkey dental anatomy was found to be very similar to equine dental anatomy with only a few quantitative differences observed.

Donkey dental anatomy. Part 1: Gross and computed axial tomography examinations

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Susan A. Kempson, Padraic M. Dixon. June 2008. Donkey dental anatomy. Part 1: Gross and computed axial tomography examinations. The Veterinary Journal. 176:3. 338-344.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 June 2008
Volume: 
176
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
338-344
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.03.003
Abstract

Post-mortem examination of 19 donkey skulls showed that donkeys have a greater degree of anisognathia (27% width difference between upper and lower jaws) compared to horses (23%). Teeth (n = 108) were collected from 14 skulls and examined grossly and by computed axial tomography (CAT). A greater degree of peripheral enamel infolding was found in mandibular cheek teeth (CT) compared to maxillary CT (P < 0.001). A significant increase in peripheral cementum from the apical region to the clinical crown was demonstrated in all CT (P < 0.0001). All donkey CT had at least five pulp cavities with six pulp cavities present in the 06s and 11s. A new endodontic numbering system for equid CT has been proposed. A greater occlusal depth of secondary dentine (mm) was present in older donkeys (>16 years) than in the younger (<15 years) donkeys studied. Based on gross and CAT examinations, donkey dental anatomy was shown to be largely similar to that described in horses.

Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK. Part 2: Epidemiological studies on the potential relationships between different dental disorders, and between dental disease and systemic disorders

Citation
Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 April 2009
Volume: 
41
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
395-400
Abstract

Reasons for performing study

Dental disease has been shown to be a risk factor for weight loss and colic in horses. No extensive clinical studies in donkeys have investigated the potential relationship between different dental disorders, or between dental disease and systemic disorders.

Objectives

To determine possible associations between dental disease and body condition score, weight loss, the need for supplemental feeding and prevalence of colic in donkeys of all ages, and to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of dental disease by the determination of associations between different dental disorders.

Methods

A prospective cross-sectional analysis of clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in The Donkey Sanctuary, Sidmouth was performed. Other epidemiological factors such as estimated age group, body condition score, weight loss, medical history and supplemental feeding were also recorded, and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine possible associations.

Results

Donkeys from older age groups were more likely to have dental disease, poor body condition score and suffered previous colic episodes. The presence of dental disease was also significantly associated with weight loss, colic, low body condition score and the need for supplemental feeding. The presence of diastemata, periodontal disease, wave mouth, smooth mouth and step mouth are frequently associated with the presence of other dental disorders.

Conclusions

In addition to oral-related pain, dental disease can cause significant systemic disorders and so has increased welfare implications in donkeys. Some dental disorders promote the development of other types of dental abnormalities and thus increase the severity of dental disease in individual animals. POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE: Effective treatment of dental disorders slows down the progression of dental disease and decreases the risk of developing some medical disorders such as colic and weight loss that are associated with dental disease.

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Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK: Part 1: Prevalence of dental disorders

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Padraic M. Dixon. April 2009. Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK: Part 1: Prevalence of dental disorders. Equine Veterinary Journal. 41:4. 390-394.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 April 2009
Volume: 
41
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
390-394
DOI number: 
10.2746/042516409X368912
Abstract

Reasons for performing the study

Dental disorders have a high prevalence in older donkeys and horses, but the nature and pathogenesis of many of these disorders have yet to be established.

Objectives

The identification and determination of the prevalence of important dental disorders in different age groups in a large single population of donkeys, to establish a better understanding of the nature and pathogenesis of these disorders.

Methods

A prospective cross-sectional study was performed on the donkey population at The Donkey Sanctuary with detailed oral examinations of 357 donkeys within 7 different age groups (age range 2-53 years) recorded.

Results

The prevalence of dental disease in all donkeys was 73%, increasing in prevalence from 28% in the youngest to 98% in the oldest age group. There was an increase in prevalence of commonly recognised dental disorders with increasing age, such as: diastemata (3.8% in youngest to 86% in oldest group); missing teeth (0-56%); overgrown teeth (15-86%); worn teeth (8-84%); displaced teeth (0-38%); and periodontal disease (0-28%).

Conclusions

There was a significant increase in the prevalence of dental disorders with increasing age with the largest significant increase for most dental disorders occurring in the 15-20 year age group. POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE: Most dental disorders significantly increase in prevalence in the 15-20 year age group and, therefore, prophylactic geriatric dental treatment in donkeys should be commenced from age 15 years.

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Necropsy survey of gastric ulcers in a population of aged donkeys: Prevalence, lesion description and risk factors

Citation

Faith A. Burden, John Gallagher, Alexandra K. Thiemann, Andrew F. Trawford. September 2008. Necropsy survey of gastric ulcers in a population of aged donkeys: Prevalence, lesion description and risk factors. Animal. 3:2. 287-293.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 September 2008
Journal: 
Animal
Volume: 
3
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
287-293
Abstract

There is no information about the prevalence of gastric ulceration in donkeys or potential risk factors for its presence in donkeys. The donkey is a stoic, hardy animal that has not previously been thought to suffer from this disease. However, gastric ulceration was found to be a problem in a population of non-working UK donkeys resident at the Donkey Sanctuary and its prevalence was estimated by examining necropsy data over a 2-year period during 2005 to 2006. Associations with clinical and management factors were determined. In total, 426 donkeys were examined at necropsy to determine the presence of gastric ulceration. Lesions were described and scored according to a four-point scale. Management and clinical data from these donkeys were analysed to identify potential risk factors for the presence of gastric ulceration. Terminal blood samples were also studied to determine whether animals were exhibiting hyperlipaemia prior to death. Results showed that 41% (n = 174) of the donkeys studied had evidence of gastric ulceration at necropsy. Most (49%) of the ulcers were of a medium size (area of xs2A7E2 cm2 – <10 cm2) and the most common site for ulcers was the margo plicatus. Of the donkeys examined, 18% had hyperlipaemia prior to or death or euthanasia and this was a risk factor for donkeys developing gastric ulceration; 62% of hyperlipaemia cases also displayed gastric ulceration (P < 0.001). Kidney disease was a potential risk factor (P = 0.02), with 74% of these animals having gastric ulceration. Donkeys that died or were euthanased due to respiratory disease were at a decreased risk of developing ulceration (P = 0.01) Donkeys fed a carbohydrate-based diet were more likely (P < 0.001) to have gastric ulceration than those fed a fibre-only diet, with 55% having gastric ulceration compared with 33% in the fibre-only group. This study has shown that gastric ulceration is commonly observed in donkeys at necropsy and may be extensive.

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Clinical dental findings in 203 working donkeys in Mexico

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Padraic M. Dixon. December 2008. Clinical dental findings in 203 working donkeys in Mexico. The Veterinary Journal. 178:3. 380-386.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 December 2008
Volume: 
178
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
380-386
Abstract

Clinical dental examinations of 203 unsedated working donkeys in tropical and temperate climatic areas in Mexico revealed a high prevalence (62%) of dental disease with sharp enamel points present in 98% of the animals. More significant dental disorders (diastemata, 4%; overgrown teeth, 18%; worn teeth, 16%; missing teeth, 0.5%; displaced teeth, 1.5%; fractured teeth, 2%) with welfare implications that required immediate treatment were also present in 18% of donkeys. The high prevalence of buccal ulcers (14.3%) and calluses (13.3%) present in this population was believed to be due to the high prevalence of sharp enamel points in conjunction with the use of tight nose bands and head collars. Dental disease was significantly associated with age groups, but not with body condition score or to the climatic area where the donkeys lived. As part of more general examinations, 81% of donkeys that had faecal egg counts performed, had parasite burdens which mainly showed a moderate level of infection. This study concluded that dental disease is a welfare concern in working donkeys in Mexico.

A survey of seasonal patterns in strongyle faecal worm egg counts of working equids of the Central Midlands and Lowlands, Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Feseha Gebreab, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid. December 2008. A survey of seasonal patterns in strongyle faecal worm egg counts of working equids of the Central Midlands and Lowlands, Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 40:8. 637-642.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 December 2008
Volume: 
40
Issue: 
8
Page numbers: 
637-642
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11250-008-9142-5
Abstract

A study was conducted for two consecutive years (1998-1999) to determine the seasonal patterns of strongyle infection in working donkeys of Ethiopia. For the purpose 2385 donkeys from midland and lowland areas were examined for the presence of parasitic ova. A hundred percent prevalence of strongyle infection with similar seasonal pattern of strongyle faecal worm egg output was obtained in all study areas. However, seasonal variations in the number of strongyle faecal worm egg output were observed in all areas. The highest mean faecal worm egg outputs were recorded during the main rainy season (June to October) in both years in all areas. Although an increase in the mean strongyle faecal egg output was obtained in the short rainy season (March-April) followed by a drop in the short dry season (May), there was no statistically significant difference between the short rainy season and long dry season (Nov-Feb) (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference however, was obtained between the main rainy season and short rainy season, and between the main rainy season and dry season (P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained it is suggested that the most economical and effective control of strongyles can be achieved by strategic deworming programme during the hot dry pre-main rainy season (May), when the herbage coverage is scarce and helminthologically 'sterile', and the arrested development of the parasites is suppose to be terminating. This could insure the greatest proportion of the existing worm population to be exposed to anthelmintic and also reduces pasture contamination and further infection in the subsequent wet season.

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Pathological investigation of caries and occlusal pulpar exposure in donkey cheek teeth using Computerised Axial Tomography with Histological and ultrastructural examinations

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Susan A. Kempson, Padraic M. Dixon. December 2008. Pathological investigation of caries and occlusal pulpar exposure in donkey cheek teeth using Computerised Axial Tomography with Histological and ultrastructural examinations. The Veterinary Journal. 178:3. 387-395.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 December 2008
Volume: 
178
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
387-395
Abstract

Post-mortem examination of 16 donkey cheek teeth (CT) with caries (both peripheral and infundibular) and pulpar exposure were performed using computerised axial tomography (CAT), histology and scanning electron microscopy. CAT imaging was found to be useful to assess the presence and extent of caries and pulp exposure in individual donkey CT. Histology identified the loss of occlusal secondary dentine, and showed pulp necrosis in teeth with pulpar exposure. Viable pulp was present more apically in one exposed pulp horn, with its occlusal aspect sealed off from the exposed aspect of the pulp horn by a false pulp stone. Scanning electron microscopy showed the amelo-cemental junction to be a possible route of bacterial infection in infundibular cemental caries. The basic pathogenesis of dental caries in donkeys appears very similar to its description in other species.

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