donkey

A study of the interstitial cells of Cajal in aged donkeys with and without intestinal disease

Citation

Constance Fintl, Neil Hudson, G.T. Pearson, John Gallagher, I.G. Mayhew. February 2010. A study of the interstitial cells of Cajal in aged donkeys with and without intestinal disease. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 142:2-3. 242-247.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2010
Volume: 
142
Issue: 
2-3
Page numbers: 
242-247
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.jcpa.2009.08.157
Abstract

Intestinal tissue samples were collected during routine post-mortem examinations from 12 aged donkeys. Six animals were euthanised due to impaction of the pelvic flexure of the large colon, while the remaining six were euthanised for non-enteric reasons such as dental or orthopaedic disease. Immunohistochemical labelling was performed to demonstrate the gastrointestinal pacemaker cells, the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), with polyclonal c-Kit antibodies. The distribution and density of the cellular networks were assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively. ICC networks are present in the donkey, with distribution similar to that of the horse, and they remain strongly immunoreactive in the older animal. There was no difference in the density and distribution of ICC in animals with or without intestinal disease.

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Idiopathic typhlocolitis in 40 aged donkeys

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Mulugeta Getachew, Andrew F. Trawford. February 2010. Idiopathic typhlocolitis in 40 aged donkeys. Equine Veterinary Education. 22:2. 53-57.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2010
Volume: 
22
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
53-57
DOI number: 
10.2746/095777309X480894
Abstract

Typhlocolitis was diagnosed in 40 aged donkeys at routine post mortem examinations subjected to euthanasia for colic-related clinical signs at The Donkey Sanctuary. Gross pathological changes included oedema, ulceration and haemorrhage involving the caecum and ventral colon. Histopathology indicated endoparasite and bacterial associated inflammation in 20 and 11 cases, respectively. Bacterial culture in 18 cases did not yield a definite aetiological agent. Other management and stress related factors were looked at to identify obvious risk factors. This report describes the clinical, biochemical and haematological parameters and pathological changes observed in 40 donkeys diagnosed with typhlocolitis.

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Morphological study of tracheal shape in donkeys with and without tracheal obstruction

Citation

Rhianne J. Powell, Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Padraic M. Dixon. March 2010. Morphological study of tracheal shape in donkeys with and without tracheal obstruction. Equine Veterinary Journal. 42:2. 136-141.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 March 2010
Volume: 
42
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
136-141
DOI number: 
10.2746/042516409X480412
Abstract

Reason for performing study

There is limited information on the gross tracheal morphology of donkeys with or without tracheal abnormalities.

Objectives

To: 1) examine the morphology of tracheas of donkeys with and without clinical and/or post mortem evidence of tracheal obstruction; 2) record the cross-sectional dimensions and shapes of tracheal rings at fixed sites; and 3) document prevalence, sites and characteristics of detected tracheal abnormalities.

Methods

The tracheas of 75, predominantly aged (median age 30 years, range 7-48 years) donkeys that died or were subjected to euthanasia on humane grounds were examined. Five had severe dyspnoea due to tracheal obstruction (with intercurrent lung disease in 3), while 7 had post mortem evidence of severe tracheal airway obstruction. Every 5th tracheal ring was dissected free and the inner and outer vertical and transverse dimensions and cross sectional areas were measured. Each dissected ring was photographed and the shape of the trachea was classified as normal or, in one of 6 abnormal grades, according to the type and degree of structural abnormality present.

Results

The tracheas had a mean of 43 (range 34-50) tracheal rings that tended to be more oval in shape in the distal cervical region. Only 31.2% of rings examined had a circular to oval shape. Dorso-ventral flattening was present in 0.9% of tracheal rings, dorsal ligament separation in 24.4%, slight cartilage deformity in 26.0%, moderate cartilage deformity in 10.4%, marked cartilage deformity in 1.9% and miscellaneous other abnormalities in 4.9% of tracheal rings. The 12 donkeys with ante or post mortem evidence of tracheal obstruction had significantly increased tracheal abnormality grade in comparison to the remaining donkeys.

Conclusions and potential relevance

Structural tracheal abnormalities are present in most old donkeys, but generally do not cause clinical problems in these sedentary animals unless intercurrent pulmonary disease is present.

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Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid, Sandy Love. May 2011. Epidemiological features of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Veterinary Parasitology. 169:3-4. 335-339.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
11 May 2011
Volume: 
169
Issue: 
3-4
Page numbers: 
335-339
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.01.007
Abstract

A cross-sectional coprological survey in the tropical regions of Ada, Akaki, Bereh and Boset, and a retrospective post-mortem investigation were conducted to study the epidemiology of fasciolosis in working donkeys in Ethiopia. Faecal samples from 803 donkeys were collected, and the number of liver flukes recovered from 112 donkeys at post-mortem between 1995 and 2004 were analysed. There was a high prevalence of fasciolosis irrespective of the age of the donkeys. The overall prevalence of the infection was 44.4% in coprologically examined donkeys, and the prevalence in the donkeys examined post-mortem was 41.9%. The infection prevalence was significantly higher in Bereh and Ada regions than in Akaki and Boset regions. Bereh with 72.6% and Boset with 21.5% showed a significantly higher and lower infection prevalence, respectively, than the rest of the regions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between different age groups of donkeys in the infection prevalence (P>0.05) but infection intensity was significantly higher in donkeys 8 years old and above (P<0.0001). Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica were identified.

Haemosiderin deposition in donkey (equusasinus) liver: Comparison of liver histopathology with liver iron content

Citation

Peter J. Brown, Trevor J. Whitbread, Faith A. Burden, Michael Bailey, K. Carley, L. Daniell, C. Jones, Nick J. Bell. April 2011. Haemosiderin deposition in donkey (equusasinus) liver: Comparison of liver histopathology with liver iron content. Research in Veterinary Science. 90:2. 284-287.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 April 2011
Volume: 
90
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
284-287
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.05.033
Abstract

Histopathological examination was carried out on post mortem samples of liver from 12 donkeys (Equus asinus), aged 21-57 years (4 females, 1 stallion, 7 geldings). Variable amounts of haemosiderin were present in Kupffer cells, portal macrophages and hepatocytes in all cases. In all cases there was infiltration of connective tissue around portal tracts by variable numbers of inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages) but obvious portal fibrosis was present in only four animals. Subjective assessment of overall haemosiderin staining (including extent and intensity) generally reflected biochemical measurements of liver iron content (measured by an inductively-coupled plasma method) as well as quantitative histochemical measurements (using an image analysis package and sections stained with Perl's Prussian blue stain). Accumulation of hepatic iron in old donkeys was not directly related to other pathological changes and may be an incidental finding.

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Pulmonary angiocentric lymphoma (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) in a donkey

Citation

Nicole du Toit, L. M. Genovese, R. G. Dalziel, Sionagh H. Smith. May 2011. Pulmonary angiocentric lymphoma (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) in a donkey. Journal of Comparative Pathology.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 May 2011
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.jcpa.2011.03.008
Abstract

A 36-year-old donkey developed dyspnoea, pyrexia, hypoalbuminaemia and oedema. Following continued clinical deterioration the donkey was humanely destroyed. Grossly, there were numerous nodules (5-10mm) scattered throughout the lung. Microscopically, the lung was infiltrated by an angiocentric and bronchocentric to diffuse mixed population of small mature and atypical lymphocytes, histiocytes, plasma cells and fewer eosinophils. The infiltrate was composed of numerous small mature and fewer atypical CD3(+) T lymphocytes. Low numbers of CD20(+) and CD79a(+) B cells, some atypical, accompanied the T cells. These infiltrates were consistent with an angiocentric lymphoma and resembled lymphomatoid granulomatosis, an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated human tumour. Immunohistochemistry for EBV latent membrane protein and polymerase chain reaction analysis for equine gamma herpesvirus DNA were negative. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of angiocentric lymphoma reported in a donkey and the first case of lymphomatoid granulomatosis-type disease in an animal in which possible concurrent infection with a gamma herpesvirus has been investigated.

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Retrospective analysis of post-mortem findings in 1,444 aged donkeys

Citation

Lisa Morrow, Ken C. Smith, Richard J. Piercy, Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Gabriela Olmos, Neville G. Gregory, Kristien Verheyen. February 2011. Retrospective analysis of post-mortem findings in 1,444 aged donkeys. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 144:2-3. 145-156.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2011
Volume: 
144
Issue: 
2-3
Page numbers: 
145-156
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.08.005
Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe and report the prevalence of conditions found at necropsy examination of UK donkeys. Records from 1,444 donkeys over a 7-year period were included in the analysis. Sixty-one categories of post-mortem finding were identified from 9,744 observations. The four most prevalent conditions noted were dental disorder (78.7%), vascular disease other than aneurysm (60.9%), arthritis (55.4%) and foot disorder (44.8%). Gastric ulceration was found in 42% of the donkeys and gastrointestinal impaction in 18.6%. The most frequent combination of two post-mortem findings in the same animal was arthritis and dental disorder. The most common disorders were associated with age, body weight and/or body condition post mortem and, for some disorders, gender. For many of the post-mortem findings, crude associations were found between the presence of one finding and the odds of also having certain other post-mortem findings. This study is the first to summarize all conditions noted at necropsy examination for a large group of donkeys. The findings increase knowledge of diseases and conditions of this species and may be useful when investigating the relevance of various pathological conditions in the live animal.

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Radiological anatomy of the donkey's foot: Objective characterisation of the normal and laminitic donkey foot

Citation

Simon N. Collins, Sue J. Dyson, M. C. Murray, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford. July 2011. Radiological anatomy of the donkey's foot: Objective characterisation of the normal and laminitic donkey foot. Equine Veterinary Journal. 43:4. 478-86.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 July 2011
Volume: 
43
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
478-86
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00312.x
Abstract

Reasons for performing study

Anatomical change within a laminitic foot is of diagnostic and prognostic importance. A lateromedial radiograph represents the current 'gold standard' by which these changes are identified. Detection of anatomical change is dependent upon a priori knowledge of normality and subjective assessment alone may not identify modest change. Normal baseline data is, therefore, needed against which objective comparisons can be made. There is little information regarding the radiological anatomy of the donkey foot, hence an equine model has been widely adopted. However, descriptive accounts suggest fundamental anatomical differences between these 2 species.

Objectives

To characterise objectively the radiological anatomy of normal donkey feet and define the nature and extent of anatomical change associated with laminitis.

Methods

The anatomy of the forefoot was quantified from lateromedial radiographs of 83 normal and 74 laminitic donkeys, using a computer based imaging system. Data were analysed using univariate and bivariate statistical methods. Results: Baseline data were established that define the radiological characteristics of the anatomy of normal donkey feet. The key hoof, bone and weightbearing stance parameters of lateromedial radiographs have been evaluated. Laminitis was associated with significant rotation and distal displacement of the distal phalanx, increases in integument depth and morphometric change to the distal phalanx (P<0.05).

Conclusions

This study challenges the validity of applying an equine model to the radiological anatomy of donkey feet. Hence, the diagnosis of anatomical change cannot be based on baseline data previously given for the horse and guidelines should be revised accordingly for the donkey. Potential relevance: This study provides an objective basis for the identification of anatomical change associated with laminitis in donkey feet.

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