donkey

Donkey welfare internationally - current research

Citation

Faith A. Burden. 9 September 2011. Donkey welfare internationally - current research. Presented at British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2011. (7 September - 10 September 2011). Liverpool, UK.

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Date presented: 
Friday 9 September 2011

Pathological conditions of the donkey foot

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Citation

Karen Rickards, Colin Goldsworthy. 14 April 2008. Pathological conditions of the donkey foot. Presented at The Diagnosis and Management of Conditions of the Foot: An International Approach. (14 April 2008). Nottingham, UK.

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Date presented: 
Monday 14 April 2008

Donkey: Hero or villain of the parasite world? Past, present and future

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Lawson Soulsby, Andrew F. Trawford, Jacqui. B. Matthews, Aline S. de Aluja, Phillipe Dorchies, Feseha Gebreab, L. J. Pangui, R. C. Krecek. October 2004. Donkey: Hero or villain of the parasite world? Past, present and future. Veterinary Parasitology. 125:1-2. 43-58.

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Publication date: 
1 October 2004
Volume: 
125
Issue: 
1-2
Page numbers: 
43-58

Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK

Citation

Ruth Cox, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Faith A. Burden, Gina L. Pinchbeck. February 2007. Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK. BMC Veterinary Research. 3:1.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2007
Volume: 
3
Issue: 
1
DOI number: 
10.1186/1746-6148-3-1
Abstract

Background

Colic (abdominal pain) is a clinical condition of serious concern affecting the welfare and survival of donkeys at the Donkey Sanctuary in the UK. One of the most commonly reported causes is due to impacted ingesta in the large intestine ("impaction colic"). However little is known about the incidence of, or risk factors for, this condition. Here we describe the epidemiology of colic in donkeys, specifically impaction colic. We focus on temporal aspects of the disease and we identify environmental and management related risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys.

Results

There were 807 colic episodes in the population of 4596 donkeys between January 1st 2000 and March 31st 2005. The majority (54.8%) of episodes were due to a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of impaction of the gastrointestinal tract. The mortality risk for all colics (51.1%) was higher than reported in other equids. The incidence rate of all colics (5.9 episodes per 100 donkeys per year) and of impaction colic (3.2 episodes) was similar to that in horses. A retrospective matched case-control study of all impaction colics from January 2003 (193) indicated that older donkeys, those fed extra rations and those that previously suffered colic were at increased risk of impaction. Lighter body weight, musculo-skeletal problems, farm and dental disease were also significantly associated with a diagnosis of impaction colic.

Conclusion

To our knowledge this is the first study to estimate the incidence rate of colic in a large population of donkeys in the UK. In contrast to other equids, impaction was the most commonly reported cause of colic. We identified several risk factors for impaction colic. Increasing age, extra rations and previous colic are known risk factors for colic in other equids. Results support the hypothesis that dental disease is associated with impaction colic. Musculo-skeletal problems may be associated with colic for various reasons including change in amount of exercise or time at pasture. Other associated factors (weight and farm) are the subject of further research. Identification of risk factors for impaction colic may highlight high risk donkeys and may allow intervention strategies to be introduced to reduce the incidence of the disease.

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Five cases of Ovariohysterectomy in the donkey

Citation

Alexandra K. Thiemann, Matshidi M. Makhembini, Vicky S. Grove. July 2007. Five cases of Ovariohysterectomy in the donkey. Veterinary Record. 161:2. 65-67.

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Publication date: 
1 July 2007
Journal: 
Veterinary Record
Volume: 
161
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
65-67
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.161.2.65
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Post mortem survey of dental disorders in 349 donkeys from an aged population (2005-2006). Part 2: Epidemiological studies

Citation

Nicole du Toit, John Gallagher, Faith A. Burden, Padraic M. Dixon. May 2008. Post mortem survey of dental disorders in 349 donkeys from an aged population (2005-2006). Part 2: Epidemiological studies. Equine Veterinary Journal. 40:3. 209-213.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 May 2008
Volume: 
40
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
209-213
Abstract

Reason for performing study

Dental disorders have recently been recognised as having major clinical and welfare implications in donkeys. However, no investigation appears to have examined the association of dental disorders with managemental factors and any intercurrent illness.

Objectives

To determine the association of dental disorders observed in a post mortem study with age group, body condition score, time since last dental treatment, feeding and the illness that necessitated euthanasia or caused death.

Methods

A prospective study documented the type and prevalence of dental disorders in 349 mainly aged donkeys (median estimated age of 31 years) that were subjected to euthanasia over an 18 month period in 2005'Aì2006. The estimated age, body condition score, supplemental feed status, time since last dental treatment and nature of the intercurrent disease that necessitated euthanasia or caused death were also recorded. Multivariable analysis was performed to examine associations of these factors with specific dental disorders and between specific dental disorders.

Results

There was a high prevalence (93.4%) of significant dental disease. Age group was significantly associated with the presence of dental disorders and an older age range was a high risk factor for the presence of cheek teeth (CT) diastemata. There was a significant association between the presence of CT diastemata and the concurrent presence of displaced, missing and worn CT. There was also a significant association between the presence of diastemata and colic.

Conclusions and potential relevance

Aged donkeys have a high prevalence of dental disorders especially of CT diastemata. Dental disorders and, in particular, the presence of CT diastemata were significantly associated with colic. Routine, prophylactic dental treatments should be performed, especially in aged donkeys.

Vaccination of sarcoid-bearing donkeys with chimeric virus-like particles of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1

Citation

S. G. Ashrafi, K. Piuko, Faith A. Burden, ZhengQiang Yuan, Elizabeth A. Gault, Matthias Müller, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid, Lubna Nasir, M. Saveria Campo. January 2008. Vaccination of sarcoid-bearing donkeys with chimeric virus-like particles of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1. Journal of General Virology. 89:1. 148-157.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2008
Volume: 
89
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
148-157
DOI number: 
10.1099/vir.0.83267-0
Abstract

Equine sarcoids are fibroblastic skin tumours affecting equids worldwide. While the pathogenesis is not entirely understood, infection with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 (and less commonly type 2) has been implicated as a major factor in the disease process. Sarcoids very seldom regress and in fact often recrudesce following therapy. Nothing is known about the immune response of the equine host to BPV. Given that the viral genes are expressed in sarcoids, it is reasonable to assume that vaccination of animals against the expressed viral proteins would lead to the induction of an immune response against the antigens and possible tumour rejection. To this end we vaccinated sarcoid-bearing donkeys in a placebo-controlled trial using chimeric virus-like particles (CVLPs) comprising BPV-1 L1 and E7 proteins. The results show a tendency towards enhanced tumour regression and reduced progression in the vaccinated group compared to control animals. Although promising, further studies are required with larger animal groups to definitely conclude that vaccination with CVLPs is a potential therapy for the induction of sarcoid regression.

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Comparison of the microhardness of enamel, primary and regular secondary dentine of the incisors of donkeys and horses

Citation

Nicole du Toit, B. Bezensek, Padraic M. Dixon. June 2008. Comparison of the microhardness of enamel, primary and regular secondary dentine of the incisors of donkeys and horses. Veterinary Record. 162:9. 272-275.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 June 2008
Journal: 
Veterinary Record
Volume: 
162
Issue: 
9
Page numbers: 
272-275
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.162.9.272
Abstract

The microhardness of the enamel, primary dentine and regular secondary dentine of seven donkey and six horse incisors was determined with a Knoop indenter at the subocclusal and mid-tooth level. The mean microhardnesses of the donkey incisor enamel, primary dentine and secondary dentine were 264·6 63·00 and 53·6 Knoop Hardness Number, respectively. There was no significant difference between the microhardness of the enamel and primary dentine on the incisors of the donkeys and horses, but the microhardness of the regular secondary dentine of the donkeys' incisors at the mid-tooth level was slightly but significantly less than that of the horses. There was also a difference in the microhardness of the secondary dentine between the subocclusal and mid-tooth levels in both donkey and horse incisors.

Because most donkeys live well beyond 30 years of age (Crane 1997), it has been proposed that their teeth may be harder than the teeth of horses, wear more slowly, and thus remain functional for longer (Misk and Seilem 1999). There have been studies of dental microhardness in human beings (Craig and Peyton 1958, Collys and others 1992), sheep (Suckling 1979), cattle (Attin and others 1997) and horses (Muylle and others 1999b). In horses, there are differences between breeds in the rate of dental wear caused by attrition (Muylle and others 1997, 1998) and in the microhardness of enamel and secondary dentine (Muylle and others 1999b), which could account for these differences. It is proposed that there may be a similar difference between the microhardness of the teeth of donkeys and horses that may contribute to the less rapid attrition of donkey teeth.

The aim of this study was to compare the microhardness of the enamel and primary and secondary dentine of the incisor teeth of donkeys and horses, to determine whether there was a significant difference between them.

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