donkey

Retrospective analysis of post-mortem findings in 1,444 aged donkeys

Citation

Lisa Morrow, Ken C. Smith, Richard J. Piercy, Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Gabriela Olmos, Neville G. Gregory, Kristien Verheyen. February 2011. Retrospective analysis of post-mortem findings in 1,444 aged donkeys. Journal of Comparative Pathology. 144:2-3. 145-156.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2011
Volume: 
144
Issue: 
2-3
Page numbers: 
145-156
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.08.005
Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe and report the prevalence of conditions found at necropsy examination of UK donkeys. Records from 1,444 donkeys over a 7-year period were included in the analysis. Sixty-one categories of post-mortem finding were identified from 9,744 observations. The four most prevalent conditions noted were dental disorder (78.7%), vascular disease other than aneurysm (60.9%), arthritis (55.4%) and foot disorder (44.8%). Gastric ulceration was found in 42% of the donkeys and gastrointestinal impaction in 18.6%. The most frequent combination of two post-mortem findings in the same animal was arthritis and dental disorder. The most common disorders were associated with age, body weight and/or body condition post mortem and, for some disorders, gender. For many of the post-mortem findings, crude associations were found between the presence of one finding and the odds of also having certain other post-mortem findings. This study is the first to summarize all conditions noted at necropsy examination for a large group of donkeys. The findings increase knowledge of diseases and conditions of this species and may be useful when investigating the relevance of various pathological conditions in the live animal.

Online references

Radiological anatomy of the donkey's foot: Objective characterisation of the normal and laminitic donkey foot

Citation

Simon N. Collins, Sue J. Dyson, M. C. Murray, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford. July 2011. Radiological anatomy of the donkey's foot: Objective characterisation of the normal and laminitic donkey foot. Equine Veterinary Journal. 43:4. 478-86.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 July 2011
Volume: 
43
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
478-86
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00312.x
Abstract

Reasons for performing study

Anatomical change within a laminitic foot is of diagnostic and prognostic importance. A lateromedial radiograph represents the current 'gold standard' by which these changes are identified. Detection of anatomical change is dependent upon a priori knowledge of normality and subjective assessment alone may not identify modest change. Normal baseline data is, therefore, needed against which objective comparisons can be made. There is little information regarding the radiological anatomy of the donkey foot, hence an equine model has been widely adopted. However, descriptive accounts suggest fundamental anatomical differences between these 2 species.

Objectives

To characterise objectively the radiological anatomy of normal donkey feet and define the nature and extent of anatomical change associated with laminitis.

Methods

The anatomy of the forefoot was quantified from lateromedial radiographs of 83 normal and 74 laminitic donkeys, using a computer based imaging system. Data were analysed using univariate and bivariate statistical methods. Results: Baseline data were established that define the radiological characteristics of the anatomy of normal donkey feet. The key hoof, bone and weightbearing stance parameters of lateromedial radiographs have been evaluated. Laminitis was associated with significant rotation and distal displacement of the distal phalanx, increases in integument depth and morphometric change to the distal phalanx (P<0.05).

Conclusions

This study challenges the validity of applying an equine model to the radiological anatomy of donkey feet. Hence, the diagnosis of anatomical change cannot be based on baseline data previously given for the horse and guidelines should be revised accordingly for the donkey. Potential relevance: This study provides an objective basis for the identification of anatomical change associated with laminitis in donkey feet.

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