donkey

Handling untrained and poorly trained donkeys

Citation

Ben Hart. Handling untrained and poorly trained donkeys. Presented at Donkey Welfare Symposium. (1 November 2013). California, USA.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Friday 1 November 2013

Overview of donkey populations worldwide

Tagged:  
Citation

Stephen Blakeway. Overview of donkey populations worldwide. Presented at Donkey Welfare Symposium. (1 November 2013). California, USA.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Friday 1 November 2013

Nutrition and dental care of donkeys

Citation

Faith A. Burden, Nicole du Toit, Alexandra K. Thiemann. August 2013. Nutrition and dental care of donkeys. In Practice. 35. 405-410.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 August 2013
Journal: 
In Practice
Volume: 
35
Page numbers: 
405-410
DOI number: 
doi:10.1136/inp.f4367
Abstract

The domestic donkey is descended from wild asses and has evolved to live in some of the most inhospitable places on earth. Little research has been carried out to address the specific needs of the donkey, which has traditionally been viewed as a small horse. The donkey is different from the horse in many ways; of particular note is its ability to thrive on highly fibrous feeds. This article discusses the nutritional requirements of donkeys and how dental disease may play a role in determining their nutritional requirements.

Online references

Statistical assessment of risk for the clinical management of equine sarcoids in a population of Equus asinus

Citation

Stuart W. Reid, George Gettingby. Statistical assessment of risk for the clinical management of equine sarcoids in a population of Equus asinus. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 26:2. 87-95.

Authors
Publication details
Volume: 
26
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
87-95
DOI number: 
10.1016/0167-5877(95)00521-8
Online references

Use of sterile maggots to treat panniculitis in an aged donkey

Citation

Nick J. Bell, S. Thomas. Use of sterile maggots to treat panniculitis in an aged donkey. The Veterinary Record. 149. 768-770.

Authors
Publication details
Volume: 
149
Page numbers: 
768-770
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.149.25.768
Abstract

An aged female donkey developed a severe, localised, suppurative panniculitis secondary to a skin wound. Bacterial culture of swabs taken from the wound gave a profuse growth of multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a profuse growth of Escherichia coli and a moderate growth of beta-haemolytic Streptococcus species. The lesion did not respond to conventional medical and surgical treatment and continued to progress. Six applications of sterile larvae (maggots) of the common greenbottle, Lucilia sericata, were used to debride the wound successfully.

Online references

Anthelmintic control of lungworm in donkeys

Citation

Hilary Clayton, Andrew F. Trawford. Anthelmintic control of lungworm in donkeys. Equine Veterinary Journal. 13:3. 192-194.

Authors
Publication details
Volume: 
13
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
192-194
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3306.1981.tb03483.x
Abstract

A field study was designed to investigate the re-establishment of patent lungworm infections in donkeys following an anthelmintic treatment regime which was effective against Dictyocaulus arnfieldi. In April 1979 faecal samples from 259 donkeys were examined and each animal classified as a negative, low positive or high positive excretor of lungworm larvae. During the summer the control group of 126 donkeys showed an increase in the number of excretors from 80 per cent in April to 91 per cent in October. At the same time there was a rise in the faecal larval output of individual animals so that by October 59 per cent were classified as high positive compared with only 20 per cent in April. The treated group of 133 donkeys received 3.5 g mebendazole daily for 5 days during April and as a result the number of excretors fell from 66 per cent pretreatment to 23 per cent one month after treatment. Despite exposure to infected pastures throughout the summer this figure was maintained at a comparatively low level and by October patent infections had been re-established in only 15 per cent of the donkeys that were negative after treatment.

Online references

Determination of refernce haematological and serum-biochemical values for working donkeys of Ethiopia

Citation

K. Etana, T. Jenbere, E. Bojia, Haileleul Negussie. January 2011. Determination of refernce haematological and serum-biochemical values for working donkeys of Ethiopia. Veterinary Research. 4:3. 90-94.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2011
Journal: 
Veterinary Research
Volume: 
4
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
90-94
DOI number: 
10.3923/vr.2011.90.94
Abstract

This study was undertaken with the aim of determining reference hematological and serobiochemical values for working Ethiopian donkeys in four districts of Oromia regional state. The study was conducted by taking blood and serum samples from a total of 130 apparently healthy donkeys which were analyzed by using automated hematology analyzer and photometer 5010, respectively. There were significant difference in RBC (p<0.001), PCV (p<0.04), MCV (p<0.001) and MCHC (p<0.001) among the different age groups. The differences in mean values for PCV, Hb, MCV, MCHC, MCH, Hb, total WBC, eosinophils, monocytes and Platelets between sexes were not statistically significant (p>0.05). In the serobiochemical studies significant difference was seen only in the mean creatinine (p<0.003) values among the different age groups. Therefore, the variations in hematological and serum biochemical values ascribed to the effects of age and sex should be taken into consideration in interpreting physiological hematological and serum biochemical parameters in working donkeys.

Online references

Cutaneous histoplasmosis in 13 Ethiopian donkeys

Citation

R. Keith Powell, Nick J. Bell, T. Abreha, K. Asmamaw, H. Bekelle, T. Daiwit, K. Itsay, Feseha Gebreab. June 2006. Cutaneous histoplasmosis in 13 Ethiopian donkeys. The Veterinary Record. 158. 836-837.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
17 June 2006
Volume: 
158
Page numbers: 
836-837
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.158.24.836
Online references

Digstible energy requirements of mexican donkeys fed oat straw and maize stover

Citation

L. Carretero-Roque, B. Colunga, David Smith, M. Gonzalez Ronquillo, A Solis-Medez, O. Castellan Ortega. September 2005. Digstible energy requirements of mexican donkeys fed oat straw and maize stover. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 37:Supp 1. 123-142.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 September 2005
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
Supp 1
Page numbers: 
123-142
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11250-005-9012-3
Abstract

The limited availability of food, together with the constraints that traditional management systems impose on the natural foraging behaviour of donkeys, often results in severe under-nutrition. Few studies have been conducted into the digestibility of different forages and little information exists on nutritional requirements of donkeys. In order to measure digestible energy requirements of donkeys under tropical conditions, an experiment was carried out at the Centre for Research in Agricultural Science (CICA) and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México located in the Toluca valley, Central México. Thirty-two donkeys of a body condition typical for Central México were divided into four groups of 8 animals each according to their sex and live weight: group 1 (Gl) comprised male donkeys below the average body weight (102 ± 5 kg); group 2 (G2) comprised male donkeys of average body weight (121.5 ± 4 kg); group 3 (G3) comprised female donkeys below average weight (111.8 ± 5 kg); and group 4 (G4) comprised female donkeys of average weight (127.6 ± 5 kg). A diet of oat straw or maize stover and 15% alfalfa hay was offered to meet exact maintenance requirements. The donkeys were monitored for 13 months. The live weight of all animals was recorded daily in order to monitor whether maintenance requirements were being met. Mean daily digestible energy (DE) requirements were measured during the winter, spring, summer and autumn of 2003–2004. Digestible energy requirements of all four sex and liveweight groups were significantly (p > 0.05) higher during the spring than during the other seasons of the year (13.5, 18.0, 10.4 and 14.3 MJ DE per day during winter, spring, summer and autumn, respectively). Predicted DE requirements of donkeys with a live weight range betweenn 90 and 150 kg using the data from the present study were less than those predicted using scaled-down horse feeding standards.

Online references

Non Tsetse transmitted animal trypanosomosis (NTTAT) in working donkeys

Citation
Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Sunday 26 May 2013
Abstract

Although donkeys are considered to be more resistant to trypanosomes, they are often seen causing severe clinical disease, particularly anaemia, lethargy and boor body condition, in immuno-compromised animals due to stress from overwork, poor management practices and low quality diets. Studies made by the Donkey Sanctuary (DS) in Kenya showed a high prevalence of both tsetse and none tsetse transmitted trypanosomes. T. congolense and T. brucei sp are the most highly prevalent tsetse transmitted trypanosomes while T. vivax is the second most prevalent, next to T. congolense. Infection prevalence of T. vivax as high as 30% were diagnosed in Kenya and Ethiopia using parasitological techniques. These prevalences could have been higher had they been diagnosed using molecular techniques, as it was shown by the study made in Gambia, in which they found an infection prevalence of 87% using PCR.

Dourine is mostly diagnosed in horses from the highland regions in Ethiopia. Recent serological study made in Ethiopia, however, revealed not only in donkeys but across all agro-ecological zones. However, as the CFT does not differentiate between the infection of Dourine and Surra, it is difficult to know the true epidemiology of these diseases among equids where they both exist. Although Surra is reported in donkeys from different countries, it is not reported in donkeys in Ethiopia. However, Surra is endemic in camels in the arid and semi-arid regions of Ethiopia. The recent migration of camels to the mid-lowland areas during the dry season in search of feed might spread the disease among equids in the area.

Recent study made in Gambia by Glasgow University, funded by the DS, showed a fatal neurological syndrome among donkeys and horses caused by trypanosomosis. The aetiological agent of this emerging neurological syndrome has been established based on the presence of trypanosomes in the brain of affected animals. However, given the genetic homology between T. evansi, T. brucei brucei and T. equiperdum, it was not possible to confirm which one of these is causing this devastating condition. To solve this mystery and identify the species of trypanosome involved, study on further molecular characterization of cerebral trypanosomosis is underway in Gambia, a project funded by the DS.

The infection of trypanosomes in donkeys raises certain questions that need to be addressed. Given the high infection prevalence in the donkey population and associated diseases;

• Are they really carriers/resistant to trypanosomosis?
• The welfare implication of trypanosomosis in donkeys
• What would be the role of donkeys in the epidemiology of trypanosomosis?
• The impact of exclusion of donkeys in the control of animal trypanosomosis?

Syndicate content