donkey

Clinical trial on the efficacy of moxidectin oral gel formulation on donkeys naturally infected by cyathostominae

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Date presented: 
Saturday 7 February 2015
Abstract

Donkeys and horses share several parasites including the small strongyles, Cyathostominae. Moxidectin (MOX), a compound of macrocyclic lactones, has a wide range of ecto and endoparasitic activity in many species. For horses, MOX is available as oral gel formulation that provides excellent and long-lasting efficacy against nematodes such as large and small strongyles. There is a paucity of data available on the efficacy of anthelmintics used in donkeys (Veneziano et al., 2011). Therapeutics, such as antiparasitic compounds, are often administered to donkeys on the basis of dosage and intervals recommended for horses, because very few drugs have donkey-specific label indications (Grosenbaugh et al., 2011). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the field efficacy and Egg Reappearance Period (ERP) of MOX oral gel up to 84 days at horse dose against natural infection of Cyathostominae in donkeys.

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Viraemic frequencies and seroprevalence of non-primate hepacivirus and equine pegiviruses in horses and other mammalian species

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Sinead Lyons, Amit Kapoor, Bradley Schneider, Nathan Wolfe, Geoff Culshaw, Brendan Corcoran, Andy Durham, Faith A. Burden, Bruce McGorum, Peter Simmonds. September 2014. Viraemic frequencies and seroprevalence of non-primate hepacivirus and equine pegiviruses in horses and other mammalian species. Journal of General Virology.

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Publication date: 
5 September 2014
DOI number: 
10.1099/vir.0.065094-0
Abstract

Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV), equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's disease associated virus (TDAV) are newly discovered members of two genera in the Flaviviridae family, Hepacivirus and Pegivirus respectively, that include human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV). To investigate their epidemiology, persistence and clinical features of infection, large cohorts of horses and other mammalian species were screened for NPHV, EPgV and TDAV viraemia and for past exposure through serological assays for NPHV and EPgV-specific antibodies. NPHV antibodies were detected in 43% of 328 horses screened for antibodies to NS3 and core antibodies, of which three were viraemic by PCR. All five horses that were stablemates of a viraemic horse were seropositive, as was a dog on the same farm. With this single exception, all other species were negative for NPHV antibodies and viraemia (donkeys (n=100), dogs (n=112), cats (n=131), non-human primates (n=164) and humans (n=362). EPgV antibodies to NS3 were detected in 66.5% of horses, including 11 of the 12 horses that had EPgV viraemia. All donkey samples were negative for EPgV antibody and RNA. All horse and donkey samples were negative for TDAV RNA. By comparing viraemia frequencies in horses with and without liver disease, no evidence was obtained that supported an association between active NPHV and EPgV infections with hepatopathy. The study demonstrates that NPHV and EPgV infections are widespread and enzootic in the study horse population and confirms that NPHV and potentially EPgV have higher frequencies of viral clearance than HCV and HPgV infections in humans.

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Review of Physiological Differences Between Donkeys and Horses

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Karen Rickards. Review of Physiological Differences Between Donkeys and Horses. Presented at 2nd Donkey Welfare Symposium. (7 November - 9 November 2014). California, USA.

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Date presented: 
Saturday 8 November 2014

Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils

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Lauren Ellse, Faith A. Burden, Richard Wall. December 2013. Control of the chewing louse Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus in donkeys, using essential oils. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 27:4. 408-413.

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Publication date: 
1 December 2013
Volume: 
27
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
408-413
Abstract

Infestations by lice can be a significant clinical and welfare issue in the management of large animals. The limited range of commercial pediculicides available and the development of resistance have led to the need to explore alternative louse management approaches. The results of in vitro and in vivo trials undertaken to control populations of the donkey chewing louse, Bovicola ocellatus (Piaget) (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) using the essential oils of tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) are reported here. Results of contact and vapour bioassays showed that 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oils resulted in > 80% louse mortality after 2 h of exposure. On farms, separate groups of 10 donkeys sprayed with 5% (v/v) tea tree and lavender oil as part of their usual grooming regime showed significant reductions in louse numbers compared with a control group (0.2% polysorbate 80 in water). These findings indicate that tea tree and lavender essential oils can provide clinically useful levels of control of B. ocellatus when used as part of a grooming routine and suggest that with further development could form the basis of an easy to apply and valuable component of a louse management programme for donkeys.

Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk-factors and management

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Lauren Ellse, Faith A. Burden, Richard Wall. April 2014. Seasonal infestation of donkeys by lice: phenology, risk-factors and management. Veterinary Parasitology.

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Publication date: 
19 April 2014
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.04.012
Abstract

A longitudinal study was undertaken over a 21 month period to examine the seasonal abundance of lice infesting donkeys, the risk factors which predispose donkeys to infestation and the effectiveness of louse management. All the lice seen were Bovicola (Werneckiella) ocellatus. A strong seasonal pattern, which was correlated with mean monthly temperature, was observed with higher prevalence and intensity in the cooler, winter months (October-March). Overall infestation in these animals was over-dispersed, suggesting that some individuals are strongly predisposed to infestation. Donkey age and mean hair length were characteristics which affected louse prevalence: older and younger donkeys and donkeys with longer hair harboured the highest numbers of lice. However, the practice of coat-clipping, to reduce the infestation, resulted in a lower louse prevalence only in the summer, suggesting that clipping is not an effective form of louse control in cooler months. Higher louse burdens were associated with larger areas of visible excoriation and hair damage, suggesting that B. ocellatus does adversely impact animal welfare. However, the ability of animal carers to estimate louse presence or absence accurately on an individual donkey was not sufficiently high to allow targeted selective treatment of heavily infested animals to be employed effectively. As animals are housed in closed herds these findings suggest that clipping in the summer and treating all animals with insecticide in late autumn, prior to turn-in may be an effective louse management strategy.

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The P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole causes a reversion to ivermectin sensitivity in cyathostomins in vitro

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Laura Peachey, Jacqui. B. Matthews, Gina L. Pinchbeck, Faith A. Burden, Nikki Stradling, Jane E. Hodgkinson. The P-glycoprotein inhibitor ketoconazole causes a reversion to ivermectin sensitivity in cyathostomins in vitro. Presented at British Society for Parasitology Spring Meeting. (7 April 2014).

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Date presented: 
Friday 7 February 2014
Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance is a major veterinary and public health issue globally, of most concern is the level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones. Recent studies have identified a role in resistance for the ATP binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, P-glycoproteins (P-gps). This study demonstrates the effect of the P-gp inhibitor ketoconazole on the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) against equid cyathostomin larvae using the larval migration inhibition test (LMIT). Third stage cyathostomin larvae (L3) were cultured from two populations; 1) with recent history of IVM resistance in vivo and 2) naive to anthelmintic exposure. The sensitivity to IVM in each group (n=8) was characterised using the LMIT. The IVM LMIT was repeated for each sample with and without the addition of 10µM ketoconazole. Probit analysis was performed on grouped data from each population to give LC-50 values. The LC-50 value for IVM in Populations 1 and 2 was 4.9 and 2.4µg/ml respectively indicating that Population 1 has a resistant phenotype in comparison to Population 2. Addition of 10µM ketoconazole to IVM in Population 1 caused a drop in LC-50 value from 5.8 to 1.6µg/ml. In Population 2 the effect of the addition of ketoconazole was negligible (1.1 to 0.9µg/ml). This study demonstrates that the P-gp inhibitor ketoconazole causes reversion to a sensitive phenotype in IVM-resistant cyathostomins, inferring that P-gps play a role in their resistance to IVM. This work will be corroborated by investigation into P-gp genes and their expression in cyathostomins.

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Chronic pleuropulmonary fibrosis and elastosis of aged donkeys - similarities to human pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE)

Citation

Amy Miele, K Dhaliwal, Nicole du Toit, J Murchison, C Dhaliwal, Harriet Brooks, Sionagh H. Smith, N Hirani, T Schwarz, C Haslett, W Wallace, Bruce McGorum. March 2014. Chronic pleuropulmonary fibrosis and elastosis of aged donkeys - similarities to human pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE). Chest.

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Publication date: 
6 March 2014
Journal: 
Chest
DOI number: 
10.1378/chest.13-1306
Abstract

BACKGROUND:
Donkey Pulmonary Fibrosis (DPF) is a spontaneous syndrome of aged donkeys with high prevalence (35%). No previous detailed characterisation of DPF has been performed. We sought to determine the similarities of DPF to recognised patterns of human pulmonary fibrosis.

METHODS:
Whole lungs were collected from 32 aged donkeys at routine necropsy. Gross examination revealed pulmonary fibrosis in 19 donkeys (DPF cases), while 13 (controls) had grossly normal lungs. Eighteen whole inflated ex vivo lungs (11 DPF, 7 controls) were imaged with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), while the remainder were sectioned and photographed. Tissue samples were collected from all lungs for histopathological evaluation using a standardised protocol. HRCT images and histology sections were reviewed independently and blindly. Lung tissue was analysed for herpes virus, fungal hyphae, mycobacteria and dust content.

RESULTS:
Ten of 19 DPF lungs were categorised as being 'consistent with' pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) according to previously defined histological and imaging criteria. All 10 PPFE-like lungs had marked pleural and subpleural fibrosis, predominantly within the upper lung zone, with accompanying intra-alveolar fibrosis and elastosis. Asinine herpesvirus (AsHV) was ubiquitously expressed within control and DPF lung tissue. No other aetiological agents were identified.

CONCLUSIONS:
Many cases of DPF share key pathological and imaging features with human PPFE, a rare interstitial pneumonia. Consequently, further study of DPF may help elucidate the aetiopathogenesis of human PPFE.

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Review: Pharmacology and therapeutics in donkeys

Disclaimer

Non-DS research

This publication may be of interest, however, The Donkey Sanctuary has had no direct involvement with this publication, and claims no credit for published results.

To our best knowledge donkey welfare has not been compromised, and the following published research is furthering the understanding and respect of donkeys worldwide.

Citation

D. A. Grosenbaugh, C. R. Reinemeyer, D. Figueiredo. October 2011. Review: Pharmacology and therapeutics in donkeys. Equine Veterinary Education. 23:10. 523-530.

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Publication date: 
1 October 2011
Volume: 
23
Issue: 
10
Page numbers: 
523-530
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3292.2011.00291.x
Abstract

Therapeutics are often administered to donkeys based on dosage and intervals recommended for horses because very few drugs have donkey-specific label indications. Yet differences between donkeys and horses in drug distribution, metabolism and elimination have been noted for most therapeutic agents studied. These differences can be partially explained by the donkey's unique physiology. Since their ancestors evolved in a desert environment, the modern donkey exhibits qualities that allow them to tolerate dehydration better than the horse and recover more quickly from its effects. Fluid balance and body water compartment partitioning differ from the horse and may have implications regarding drug distribution. Since donkeys are preferential browsers, differences in diet may have influenced evolutionary differences in metabolic disposition of drugs. It is important to acknowledge these differences when designing dose regimes for donkeys based on horse protocols in order to avoid either lack of efficacy or toxicity.

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Review: Anaesthesia and analgesia of the donkey and the mule

Disclaimer

Non-DS research

This publication may be of interest, however, The Donkey Sanctuary has had no direct involvement with this publication, and claims no credit for published results.

To our best knowledge donkey welfare has not been compromised, and the following published research is furthering the understanding and respect of donkeys worldwide.

Citation

Nora Matthews, J. P. A. M. van Loon. January 2013. Review: Anaesthesia and analgesia of the donkey and the mule. Equine Veterinary Education. 25:1. 47-51.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2013
Volume: 
25
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
47-51
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3292.2011.00312.x
Abstract

The number of donkeys and mules throughout the world is stable, and awareness of their use and concern for welfare, pain recognition and treatment are receiving increasing veterinary interest. Therefore, accurate information about anaesthesia and analgesia in donkeys and mules is important to ever more equine practitioners. Since donkeys are physiologically and pharmacologically different from horses, knowledge on species specific aspects of anaesthesia and analgesia are very important. Mules combine elements from both donkey and horse backgrounds, leading to great diversity in size, temperament and body type. Physiologically, they seem to resemble horses more than donkeys. This review highlights the current knowledge on various anaesthetic and analgesic approaches in donkeys and mules. There is still much information that is not available about donkeys; in many circumstances, the clinician must use available equine information to treat the patient, while monitoring carefully to observe for differences in response to therapy compared to the horse.

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Comparative pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in clinically normal horses and donkeys

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Disclaimer

Non-DS research

This publication may be of interest, however, The Donkey Sanctuary has had no direct involvement with this publication, and claims no credit for published results.

To our best knowledge donkey welfare has not been compromised, and the following published research is furthering the understanding and respect of donkeys worldwide.

Citation

Melissa D. Sinclair, Katrina L. Mealey, Nora Matthews, Ken E. Peck, Tex S. Taylor, Brad S. Bennett. July 2006. Comparative pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in clinically normal horses and donkeys. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 67:6. 1082-1085.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 July 2006
Volume: 
67
Issue: 
6
Page numbers: 
1082-1085
DOI number: 
10.2460/ajvr.67.6.1082
Abstract

Objective: To determine the disposition of a bolus of meloxicam (administered IV) in horses and donkeys (Equus asinus) and compare the relative pharmacokinetic variables between the species.

Animals: 5 clinically normal horses and 5 clinically normal donkeys.

Procedures: Blood samples were collected before and after IV administration of a bolus of meloxicam (0.6 mg/kg). Serum meloxicam concentrations were determined in triplicate via high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum concentration-time curve for each horse and donkey was analyzed separately to estimate standard noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables.

Results: In horses and donkeys, mean +/- SD area under the curve was 18.8 +/- 7.31 microg/mL/h and 4.6 +/- 2.55 microg/mL/h, respectively; mean residence time (MRT) was 9.6 +/- 9.24 hours and 0.6 +/- 0.36 hours, respectively. Total body clearance (CL(T)) was 34.7 +/- 9.21 mL/kg/h in horses and 187.9 +/- 147.26 mL/kg/h in donkeys. Volume of distribution at steady state (VD(SS)) was 270 +/- 160.5 mL/kg in horses and 93.2 +/- 33.74 mL/kg in donkeys. All values, except VD(SS), were significantly different between donkeys and horses.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: The small VD(SS) of meloxicam in horses and donkeys (attributed to high protein binding) was similar to values determined for other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Compared with other species, horses had a much shorter MRT and greater CL(T) for meloxicam, indicating a rapid elimination of the drug from plasma; the even shorter MRT and greater CL(T) of meloxicam in donkeys, compared with horses, may make the use of the drug in this species impractical.

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