donkey

Characterisation of Asinine Pulmonary Fibrosis and similarities to an emerging human interstitial lung disease

Citation

Amy Miele, Nicole du Toit, Harriet Brooks, Sionagh H. Smith, W Wallace, C Dhaliwal, J Murchison, T Schwarz, N Hirani, C Haslett, K Dhaliwal, Bruce McGorum. Characterisation of Asinine Pulmonary Fibrosis and similarities to an emerging human interstitial lung disease. Presented at BSAS Annual Meeting 2013. (16 April - 17 April 2013). Nottingham, UK.

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Date presented: 
Tuesday 16 April 2013
Event name: 
BSAS Annual Meeting 2013
Abstract

Introduction

Pleuroparenchymal Fibroelastosis (PPFE) is an emerging, idiopathic and likely under diagnosed condition that does not fall within any of the current classifications of human interstitial lung diseases (Frankel et al, 2004). Key features include an upper zone predominance of pleural fibrosis with associated intra-alveolar fibrosis and elastosis of alveolar walls (Frankel et al, 2004; Reddy et al., 2012). The objective of our study was to examine ex vivo lung tissue from a small cohort of aged donkeys with a high prevalence (35%) of fibrosing interstitial lung disease termed Asinine Pulmonary Fibrosis (APF;Morrow et al, 2010). APF is a potentially debilitating and untreatable syndrome of donkeys that is poorly understood and rarely documented. We hypothesise that some cases of APF share several key gross and histopathological features of PPFE and propose that both can be linked to recurrent respiratory infection.

Materials and Methods

Whole asinine lungs were collected from 30 aged donkeys at routine necropsy examination at two UK donkey sanctuaries between June 2009 and September 2012. 19 ‘APF affected’ donkeys had evidence of pulmonary fibrosis on gross examination while 11 ‘control’ animals had grossly normal lungs. Lungs were manually inflated prior to clamping of the trachea and gross images were photographed with a digital camera. 16 whole inflated ex vivo lungs (11 APF, 5 controls) were then imaged with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Tissue samples were collected from each lung into 10% buffered formalin according to a standard protocol before undergoing routine processing to paraffin blocks. Sections were routinely stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), elastic van Gieson (EVG) and Masson’s trichrome (MT). HRCT images and histology sections were reviewed independently and blindly by a radiologist and pathologist respectively from both medical and veterinary fields. Sections and HRCT images were categorised as ‘definite’, ‘consistent with’ or ‘inconsistent with’ with regard to PPFE using criteria described by Reddy et al (2012). Cases were categorised as ‘definite’ on either CT or histology if there was pleural thickening with associated subpleural fibrosis either concentrated in upper or dorsal lung lobes (with respect to CT evaluation) or demonstrating intra-alveolar fibrosis with alveolar septal elastosis (with respect to histological evaluation of EVG sections). CT images were categorised as ‘consistent with’ if there was dorsal lobe pleural thickening and associated subpleural fibrosis but the distribution of fibrosis was not concentrated in the dorsal lung lobes or there was evidence of coexistent lung disease elsewhere. Histology sections were categorised as ‘consistent with’ if intra-alveolar fibrosis was present but either not associated with pleural fibrosis, not predominantly subpleural or not in a dorsal lobe biopsy. ‘Inconsistent with’ was assigned to cases that lacked the aforementioned features either on CT or histology.

Results

Ages of ‘APF affected’ (median 31 years, range 14-53) and ‘control’ (median 28 years, range 4-36) donkeys at the time of death were not significantly different (Mann Whitney, p>0.05). The donkeys comprised 11 geldings and 19 entire jennies. 10/19 APF affected cases were euthanased on humane grounds due to respiratory disease, while 9 were euthanased on humane grounds for other reasons and pulmonary fibrosis was an incidental post mortem finding.
10/19 APF affected cases were categorised as either ‘definite’ or ‘consistent with’ PPFE on histological evaluation, while 9 showed histological evidence of pleuroparenchymal fibrosis but this did not have an intra-alveolar distribution. 8/11 APF affected cases were categorised as either ‘definite’ or ‘consistent with’ PPFE on evaluation of HRCT images. Two of the remaining 3 cases showed pleural and subpleural fibrosis concentrated in the ventral lung lobes while one demonstrated diffuse ground glass opacity with minimal pleural fibrosis. Histological evaluation of these three cases also resulted in an ‘inconsistent with’ classification. All control cases were classified as ‘inconsistent with’ on both HRCT and histology.

Conclusions

APF is a common yet rarely diagnosed and apparently untreatable syndrome of aged donkeys. This study is the first to combine HRCT and histological data to characterise and document pathological features of APF. We conclude that the majority of cases of APF share key pathological features with human PPFE. Further study of APF may yield valuable information to help elucidate the aetiopathogenesis of this emerging human disease.

Acknowledgements The authors gratefully acknowledge funding from the MRC.

References
Frankel, S.K., Cool, C.D., Lynch, D.A., & Brown, K.K., 2004, CHEST Journal 126(6): 2007.
Morrow, L., Smith, K., Piercy, R., et al., 2010, Journal of Comparative Pathology.
Reddy, T.L., Tominaga, M., Hansell, D.M., et al., 2012, European Respiratory Journal 40(2): 377.

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Donkey hoof disorders and their treatment

Citation

Alexandra K. Thiemann, Karen Rickards. March 2013. Donkey hoof disorders and their treatment. In Practice. 35. 135-140.

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Publication date: 
1 March 2013
Journal: 
In Practice
Volume: 
35
Page numbers: 
135-140
DOI number: 
doi:10.1136/inp.f1074
Abstract

Disorders of the hoof have important health and welfare implications in donkeys. Clinical conditions that affect the donkey hoof include laminitis, which is one of the most common causes of lameness in donkeys in the UK, as well as white line disease/abscess, and chronic conditions such as overlong hooves. This article reviews the normal anatomy and function of the donkey’s foot, before discussing in more detail the diseases that can arise and their treatment.

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Common helminth infections of donkeys and their control in temperate regions

Citation

Jacqui. B. Matthews, Faith A. Burden. March 2013. Common helminth infections of donkeys and their control in temperate regions. Equine Veterinary Education.

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Publication date: 
18 March 2013
DOI number: 
doi: 10.1111/eve.12018
Abstract

Roundworms and flatworms that affect donkeys can cause disease. All common helminth parasites that affect horses also infect donkeys, so animals that co-graze can act as a source of infection for either species. Of the gastrointestinal nematodes, those belonging to the cyathostomin (small strongyle) group are the most problematic in UK donkeys. Most grazing animals are exposed to these parasites and some animals will be infected all of their lives. Control is threatened by anthelmintic resistance: resistance to all 3 available anthelmintic classes has now been recorded in UK donkeys. The lungworm, Dictyocaulus arnfieldi, is also problematical, particularly when donkeys co-graze with horses. Mature horses are not permissive hosts to the full life cycle of this parasite, but develop clinical signs on infection. In contrast, donkeys are permissive hosts without displaying overt clinical
signs and act as a source of infection to co-grazing horses. Donkeys are also susceptible to the fluke, Fasciola hepatica. This flatworm can be transmitted, via snails and the environment, from ruminants. As with cyathostomins, anthelmintic resistance is increasing in fluke populations in the UK. A number of the anthelmintic products available for horses do not have a licence for use in donkeys, and this complicates the design of parasite control programmes. As no new equine anthelmintic classes appear to be near market, it is important that the efficacy of currently effective drugs is maintained. It is important that strategies are used that attempt to preserve anthelmintic efficacy. These strategies should be based on the concept that the proportion of worms in a population not exposed to anthelmintic at each treatment act as a source of ‘refugia’. The latter is an important factor in the rate at which resistance develops. Thus, it is imperative that parasite control programmes take into account the need to balance therapy to control helminth-associated disease with the requirement to preserve anthelmintic effectiveness.

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Dietary management to improve the gastrointestinal health of the donkey

Citation

Faith A. Burden, Nikki Stradling. Dietary management to improve the gastrointestinal health of the donkey. Presented at 6th European Equine Health and Nutrition Congress. (1 March - 2 March 2013). Ghent, Belgium.

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Date presented: 
Friday 1 March 2013
Abstract

The Donkey Sanctuary is a welfare organisation which cares for over 2500 donkeys. Donkeys may require additional feeding due to dental disease, ill health or previous neglect. Research in 2005 highlighted that impaction colics (IC) were a significant cause of mortality in resident donkeys (50 cases, 16% of total euthanasias or deaths) and gastric ulceration (GU) was common in donkeys examined post mortem (PM) (41%). Further studies established that feeding practices were contributing to the incidence of IC and GU. Cox et al.1, (2007) demonstrated that donkeys fed concentrate rations were at an increased risk of developing IC (Odds Ratio=2.5, P<0.001). Research in to GU by Burden et al.2, (2009) showed an increased risk of donkeys developing GU when fed cereal concentrate rations (OR=2.4, P<0.001).

Feeding practices were changed from 2008 onwards; prior to this cereal-based rations were fed in meals to donkeys requiring additional feed. They were replaced with fibre-based concentrates fed ad libutum or in small meals. The incidence of GU and IC have been monitored since these changes through PM examination of all animals that die or are euthanased. Prevalence at PM of IC in 2011(5% (n=13)) was significantly lower (P<0.001) than in 2005 (16% (n=50)), univariable logistic regression analysis indicated that donkeys fed concentrate rations are no longer at a greater risk of IC (P>0.05) when compared with those not fed concentrates. Active GU was seen in 7% (n=25) of donkeys at PM in 2011 compared to 41% in 2005, Univariable logistic regression analysis indicated that donkeys fed fibre-based concentrate rations were at no greater risk of developing GU than those not fed concentrates (P>0.05). During this time period the only significant management changes made were those related to feeding; however the effect of other variables on the prevalence of GU and IC at PM warrants further investigation.

1Cox et al. 2007 BMC Vet Res. 2;3:1

2Burden et al. 2009 animal, 3, 287-293

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Spatial cognition and perseveration by horses, donkeys and mules in a simple A-not-B detour task

Citation

Britta Osthaus, Leanne Proops, Ian Hocking, Faith A. Burden. December 2012. Spatial cognition and perseveration by horses, donkeys and mules in a simple A-not-B detour task. Animal Cognition.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
28 December 2012
Journal: 
Animal Cognition
DOI number: 
DOI 10.1007/s10071-012-0589-4
Abstract

We investigated perseveration and detour behaviour in 36 equids (Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. caballus x E. asinus) and compared these data to those of a previous study on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). The animals were required to make a detour through a gap at one end of a straight barrier in order to reach a visible target. After one, two, three or four repeats (A trials), the gap was moved to the opposite end of the barrier (B trials). We recorded initial deviations from the correct solution
path and the latency to crossing the barrier. In the A trials, mules crossed the barrier significantly faster than their parental species, the horses and donkeys. In the B trials, following the change of gap location, all species showed a reduction in performance. Both dogs and horses exhibited significant spatial perseveration, going initially to the previous gap location. Donkeys and mules, however, performed at chance level. Our results suggest that hybrid vigour in mules extends to spatial abilities.

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Field efficacy of praziquantel oral paste against naturally acquired equine cestodes in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Feseha Gebreab, Stuart W. Reid, Faith A. Burden, Sandy Love. September 2012. Field efficacy of praziquantel oral paste against naturally acquired equine cestodes in Ethiopia. Parasitology Research.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
22 September 2012
DOI number: 
DOI 10.1007/s00436-012-3117-1
Abstract

The efficacy of an oral formulation of praziquantel (Equitape, Horse paste, Fort Dodge) in the reduction of cestode egg counts and serum antibody level against Anoplocephala perfoliata was assessed in 44 donkeys under field conditions. The donkeys were confirmed both by faecal examination and serum antibody assessed by an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay to have natural infection with tapeworms. The donkeys were randomly allocated into treatment (n022) and control (n022) groups. The treatment group was treated with both praziquantel and ivermectin (Ivomec, Merial) at a dose rate of 1 mg/kg and 200 μg/kg, respectively while the control group was treated only with ivermectin. Faecal samples were collected before treatment (day-0) and 2, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-treatment while blood samples were collected before treatment and 8 and 16 weeks after treatment and analysed. The results of the study demonstrated that praziquantel paste was highly effective in reducing cestode eggs in donkeys and had an efficacy of more than 99 % until week 16 (day112). No cestode egg reappearance by 16 weeks post-treatment in any animal in the treatment group was observed while donkeys in the control group continued shedding cestode eggs. The immunological assay also showed a significant reduction in serum antibody level against A. perfoliata in treated donkeys compared to the control group (p00.0001). This marked decrease in serum antibody level indicates reduced risk of cestode-associated colic and other gastrointestinal disorders and clinical diseases. No adverse reactions or clinical effects were encountered in any animal within either group throughout the trial period.

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The evaluation of African and UK bioactive plant extracts for the control of equid gastrointestinal nematodes

Citation

Laura Peachey, Gina L. Pinchbeck, Claire Scantlebury, Gebre Tefera, Mulugeta Getachew, D. Etana, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford, Jacqui. B. Matthews, Jane Hodgkinson. The evaluation of African and UK bioactive plant extracts for the control of equid gastrointestinal nematodes. Presented at International Conference on Equine Infectious Diseases IX. (21 October - 26 October 2012). Kentucky, USA.

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Date presented: 
Tuesday 23 October 2012
Abstract

In the developed world the control of equid gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes, in particular cyathostomins, is increasingly challenging due the threat of anthelmintic resistance. In developing countries such as Ethiopia despite high parasite burdens, access to genuine anthelmintic treatment is limited. In both situations there is a need for alternative treatment and management regimens for effective parasite control and consequently there has been increasing interest in the use of bioactive plant extracts (BPEs) [1]. This study identified candidate plants in the UK and Ethiopia and evaluated their in vitro efficacy against cyathostomin populations derived from donkeys. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach was used to identify five ethnoveterinary medicines for use in donkeys in Ethiopia. In the UK three plants were identified following extensive review of literature citing efficacy against GI nematodes of other host species and two extracts were provided courtesy of Prof Jerzy Behnke, University of Nottingham. Hydro-alcoholic extraction of dried plant material was carried out for the eight extracts prior to reconstitution in both water and DMSO. Efficacy of each extract was evaluated by egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval migration assay (LMA) using eggs and larvae recovered from the faeces of donkeys at the Donkey Sanctuary, UK. Dose response curves were produced and ED-50 values were calculated using probit analysis. Of the five Ethiopian plant extracts tested, four showed efficacy in the EHA and/or LMA. The two most efficacious were Acacia nilotica and Rumex abyssinicus in the EHA with ED-50 values of 0.72mg/ml and 1.29mg/ml respectively. Of the five UK extracts four showed efficacy in the EHA and/or LMA. The two most efficacious were Carica papaya (papaya) in the LMA and Allium sativum (garlic) in the EHA with ED-50 values of 18.9µM and 0.65mg/ml respectively. The two BPEs most efficacious in vivo for Ethiopia and the UK are to be carried forward to in vivo trials. This study has demonstrated in vitro efficacy of nine plant extracts against cyathostomins. There is evidence in the literature that these plant extracts show efficacy both in vitro and in vivo against GI nematodes in other species. Therefore these results have identified potential alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics for the treatment of cyathostomins that require further investigation.

[1] Githiori JB, Athanasiadou S, Thamsborg SM. Use of plants in novel approaches for control of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock with emphasis on small ruminants. Vet Para 2006;139, 308–320.

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