donkey

Expression of PGP 9.5 by Enteric Neurons in Horses and Donkeys with and without Intestinal Disease

Citation

Neil Hudson, G.T. Pearson, I.G. Mayhew, Christopher Proudman, Faith A. Burden, Constance Fintl. November 2013. Expression of PGP 9.5 by Enteric Neurons in Horses and Donkeys with and without Intestinal Disease. Journal of Comparative Pathology.

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Publication date: 
26 November 2013
DOI number: 
doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.11.203
Abstract

Intestinal motility disorders are an important problem in horses and donkeys and this study was carried out in order to evaluate the enteric neurons in animals with and without intestinal disease. Surplus intestinal tissue samples were collected from 28 horses undergoing exploratory laparotomy for colic. In addition, surplus intestinal samples from 17 control horses were collected immediately following humane destruction for clinical conditions not relating to the intestinal tract. Similar samples were also collected during routine post-mortem examinations from 12 aged donkeys; six animals were humanely destroyed for conditions related to the intestinal tract, while the remaining six were humanely destroyed for other reasons including dental and orthopaedic diseases. Tissue samples were fixed in formalin and immunohistochemical labelling was performed targeting the enteric neurons using a polyclonal antibody specific for the neuronal marker PGP 9.5. The distribution and density of neuronal networks were assessed qualitatively and semiquantitatively. There was strong PGP 9.5 expression in both the horse and donkey samples and labelling was detected throughout the tissue sections. In both species, PGP 9.5-immunoreactive nerve fibres were detected in all layers of the intestinal tract, both in large and small intestinal samples. Networks of enteric neurons were present in the donkey with a similar distribution to that seen in the horse. There was no demonstrable difference in enteric neuronal density and distribution in the groups of animals with intestinal disease compared with those without, apart from two (out of 28) horses with intestinal disease that showed a marked reduction in PGP 9.5 immunoreactivity. Apart from these two animals, this total cohort analysis differs from some previously observed findings in horses with intestinal disease and may therefore reflect the different pathophysiological processes occurring in varying intestinal conditions resulting in colic both in the donkey and the horse.

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Participatory study of medicinal plants used in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in Eastern Shewa and Arsi zones of Oromia region, Ethiopia

Citation

Claire Scantlebury, Laura Peachey, Jane Hodgkinson, Jacqui. B. Matthews, Andrew F. Trawford, Mulugeta Getachew, Gebre Tefera, Gina L. Pinchbeck. September 2013. Participatory study of medicinal plants used in the control of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys in Eastern Shewa and Arsi zones of Oromia region, Ethiopia. BMC Veterinary Research. 9:179. 1-12.

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Publication date: 
1 September 2013
Volume: 
9
Issue: 
179
Page numbers: 
1-12
DOI number: 
doi:10.1186/1746-6148-9-179
Abstract

Background

Gastrointestinal nematode infections constitute a threat to the health and welfare of donkeys worldwide. Their primary means of control is via anthelmintic treatments; however, use of these drugs has constraints in developing countries, including cost, limited availability, access to cheaper generic forms of variable quality and potential anthelmintic resistance. As an alternative, bioactive plants have been proposed as an option to treat and control gastrointestinal helminths in donkeys. This study aimed to use participatory methodology to explore donkey owner knowledge, attitudes and beliefs relating to the use of plant-based treatments for gastrointestinal parasites of donkeys in Ethiopia.

Results

In focus groups, 22/29 groups stated they knew of plants used for the treatment of gastrointestinal parasites in donkeys. All groups volunteered plants that were used in cattle and/or small ruminants. In total, 21 plants were named by participants. ‘Koso’ (Hagenia abyssinica) ‘Grawa’ (Vernonia amygdalina) and a mixed roots and leaves preparation were the most frequently named plant preparations. ‘Enkoko’ (Embelia shimperi) and ‘a mixture of roots and leaves’ were ranked highly for effectiveness in donkeys. However, ‘Grawa’ and ‘Koso’ were the highest ranked when taking into account both the rank position and the number of groups ranking the plant.

Thematic analysis of participants’ current attitudes and beliefs surrounding traditional plant-based remedies for gastrointestinal parasites revealed that anthelmintics obtained from clinics were generally favoured due to their ease of administration and perceived higher effectiveness. There was doubt surrounding the effectiveness of some plant-based treatments, but there were also perceived advantages including their low cost, ease of cultivation and availability. However, plant-based treatments were considered a “past trend” and people favoured “modern” medicine, particularly among the younger generation.

Conclusions

There was extensive knowledge of plant-based treatments for gastrointestinal parasites in livestock in Ethiopia. In donkeys, Koso (Hagenia abyssinica), Grawa (Vernonia amygdalina), Enkoko (Embelia shimperi) and ‘mixed roots and leaves’ were the most frequently named and/or highest ranked plants with reported efficacy against gastrointestinal parasites. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation of these plants is now required to determine viable alternatives for the treatment and control of gastrointestinal parasites in Ethiopia.

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Donkey assisted therapy

Citation

David Cook, Stephen Blakeway. Donkey assisted therapy. Presented at Donkey Welfare Symposium 2013. (1 November 2013). California, USA.

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Date presented: 
Friday 1 November 2013

Handling untrained and poorly trained donkeys

Citation

Ben Hart. Handling untrained and poorly trained donkeys. Presented at Donkey Welfare Symposium. (1 November 2013). California, USA.

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Date presented: 
Friday 1 November 2013

Overview of donkey populations worldwide

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Citation

Stephen Blakeway. Overview of donkey populations worldwide. Presented at Donkey Welfare Symposium. (1 November 2013). California, USA.

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Date presented: 
Friday 1 November 2013

Nutrition and dental care of donkeys

Citation

Faith A. Burden, Nicole du Toit, Alexandra K. Thiemann. August 2013. Nutrition and dental care of donkeys. In Practice. 35. 405-410.

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Publication date: 
1 August 2013
Journal: 
In Practice
Volume: 
35
Page numbers: 
405-410
DOI number: 
doi:10.1136/inp.f4367
Abstract

The domestic donkey is descended from wild asses and has evolved to live in some of the most inhospitable places on earth. Little research has been carried out to address the specific needs of the donkey, which has traditionally been viewed as a small horse. The donkey is different from the horse in many ways; of particular note is its ability to thrive on highly fibrous feeds. This article discusses the nutritional requirements of donkeys and how dental disease may play a role in determining their nutritional requirements.

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Statistical assessment of risk for the clinical management of equine sarcoids in a population of Equus asinus

Citation

Stuart W. Reid, George Gettingby. March 1996. Statistical assessment of risk for the clinical management of equine sarcoids in a population of Equus asinus. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 26:2. 87-95.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 March 1996
Volume: 
26
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
87-95
DOI number: 
10.1016/0167-5877(95)00521-8
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Use of sterile maggots to treat panniculitis in an aged donkey

Citation

Nick J. Bell, S. Thomas. December 2001. Use of sterile maggots to treat panniculitis in an aged donkey. The Veterinary Record. 149. 768-770.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 December 2001
Volume: 
149
Page numbers: 
768-770
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.149.25.768
Abstract

An aged female donkey developed a severe, localised, suppurative panniculitis secondary to a skin wound. Bacterial culture of swabs taken from the wound gave a profuse growth of multi-drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a profuse growth of Escherichia coli and a moderate growth of beta-haemolytic Streptococcus species. The lesion did not respond to conventional medical and surgical treatment and continued to progress. Six applications of sterile larvae (maggots) of the common greenbottle, Lucilia sericata, were used to debride the wound successfully.

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