donkey

Prevalence of dental disorders in rural working equines of Mexico

Citation

J. A. Fernando-Martinez, Mariano Hernandez-Gil, Aline S. de Aluja, A. Herrera-Leon, J. L. Velazquez-Ramirez. October 2006. Prevalence of dental disorders in rural working equines of Mexico. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Nutritional status, measured as body condition, has been used to assess welfare in working equines. Dental abnormalities have a substantial impact on the nutritional status of equines because they limit digestibility of foods and then nutrient utilisation. In Mexico, most of the working equines show body condition scores below 2.5 throughout the year and teeth problems may have a role in this. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prevalence of dental disorders in a population of working equines in Mexico. The study was run within with the work of the mobile clinics of DS-ILPH-UNAM programme. A total of 3,838 equines in 47 rural villages were assessed. Data were collected by surveys and by recording dental disorders in a complete oral examination. Species (donkey, horse or mule), sex (male or female), age and body condition score of every animal was recorded. The prevalence of animals with dental disorders and the frequency of each dental pathology in the affected animals were calculated. Body condition and age of affected animals were recorded. The average prevalence of serious dental disorder was low in all the cases (13%) and did not differ among species and sexes. The most frequent condition affecting incisor line of occlusion was ventral curvature. Enamel points, hooks, ramps, accentuated transverse ridges and steps were the most frequent abnormalities of cheek teeth rows. The average age of affected animals was 10.4±5.8 years, ranging from two to 40 years. Age did not differ among species or sexes. Mules showed higher average age, but the range was narrower than in other species. With regards to the body condition, more than 60% of the affected equines were in the lowest range (<2.5). These results are the first to describe the prevalence of serious dental abnormalities in working equines in Mexico and suggest the subject deserves further investigation. The data would allow strategies aimed at improving equine welfare via nutritional status.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

A comprehensive approach to minimise the fatal effects of tetanus and colic in donkeys of Ethiopia

Citation

E. Bojia, Feseha Gebreab, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Ayele, Mersha Tesfaye, Andrew F. Trawford, Joe Anzuino. October 2006. A comprehensive approach to minimise the fatal effects of tetanus and colic in donkeys of Ethiopia. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Retrospective analysis of the clinic database between 2003-2005 indicated that tetanus (27 cases), colic (134), rabies (7), strangles (17), hyena bite (429), dystocia (39), hernia (27) and car accidents are the major causes of direct mortality in donkeys of Central Ethiopia. The case fatality rates of donkeys affected by these diseases were: tetanus 22%, colic 27%, dystocia 15%, strangles 12%, hernia 11%, hyena bite 7% and rabies 100%, in clinical intervention sites of the Donkey Sanctuary. In the non-intervention areas the mortality rates are expected to be higher as there would be no treatment intervention. In this paper the two major causes of mortality: tetanus and colic are discussed. In the project in Ethiopia, treatments of advanced cases of tetanus following standard procedures have been successful. Of 27 cases treated 21 have been cured. The treatment has, however, been expensive, costing the project an average of 1400 Eth Birr per donkey (mature donkey costs 300-400 Eth Birr) and requiring a long period of hospitalisation. In an ideal situation, prophylactic immunisation is the best option. Economic realities however prohibit such an option from being feasible in countries like Ethiopia. An extension system and strategy that focus on the prevention of wounds using proper harnesses/saddles and institution of a sound hoof care programme is the option in mind. Colic characteristics are: gastric impaction 8%, obstruction of small intestines 7%, colonic impactions 19%, flatulent colic 23%, enterolithiasis/foreign bodies 24%, throboembolism due to strongylosis and undiagnosed cases 19%. Free access to mouldy or coarse feed, ingestion of polythene bags, fertiliser sacks and used fabrics of nylon clothes were the major causes. Common sites of lodgement for enteroliths were the proximal portion of the transverse colon, transverse and small colons. Enterolith/foreign body was often diagnosed in pregnant donkeys with colic. Few cases were relieved by surgery. A considerable number of the enteroliths were removed by manual traction. Veterinary intervention alone will do little to alleviate such problems. The use of school children to collect polyethylene bags and fertiliser sacks, improve farmers' awareness of the risk being posed by these materials and that of braided nylon ropes. Encouraging farmers to prevent donkeys from grazing at waste disposal sites is also another preventive measure that can be practised against colic. Extension and education programmes for owners should pay particular attention to these issues.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Normal donkey dental anatomy

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Susan A. Kempson, Padraic M. Dixon. October 2006. Normal donkey dental anatomy. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

This study examined normal donkey teeth using gross anatomical inspection, computed axial tomography (CAT), radiography, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and, decalcified and undecalcified histology to determine their normal gross anatomy, histology and ultrastructure. CAT findings have shown donkey endodontic anatomy and the density (in Hounslow units) of donkey calcified dental tissues, i.e. enamel, dentine and cementum to be similar to values recorded in horses. Decalcified and undecalcified histology has identified donkey cheek teeth to have a similar histological appearance to that which has been described in the horse. SEM of donkey dental tissue has demonstrated minor differences to normal horse dental ultrastructure. Now that normal donkey dental anatomy has been clearly defined, pathological changes can be identified in diseased teeth and supporting structures and will allow a better understanding of the pathophysiology of common donkey dental disorders. Ultimately the results of this project will enable better dental care specifically developed for donkeys, promoting welfare in the donkey.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Gatrointestinal parasite burden, body condition and haematological values in equines in the humid tropical areas of Mexico

Citation

M. P. Valdez-Cruz, Mariano Hernandez-Gil. October 2006. Gatrointestinal parasite burden, body condition and haematological values in equines in the humid tropical areas of Mexico. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Working equines in Mexico are distributed throughout the territory, but the management practices and the health and welfare conditions differ widely between regions depending on people's customs and specific climate conditions. The Eastern coast of México has an important equine population used for work in rural production systems. Something that owners and animal workers are concerned about is how the gastrointestinal parasite burden affects the equines nutritional status and health. This is because parasite reinfestations are most likely to occur in hot, humid climates. However, there are few reliable data to support this and the lack of information makes it difficult to design treating strategies and extension activities to ensure the health and welfare of equines in these areas. To address this, a trial was designed to determine the prevalence of animals infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, the parasite burdens and their effects on the nutritional status and haematological values of working equines from a tropical area of Mexico. One hundred and twelve equines were randomly selected in five different villages of the area. One sample of faeces and one sample of blood (in a tube containing EDTA) were obtained from every animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burden using the McMaster technique, proportions of nematodes species present through a coproculture, packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count, were measured. The nutritional status was assessed using body condition score. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. All calculations were done per species (horses, donkeys and mules) and community (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). Prevalence of infected equines was higher than 90%. The most common nematode species was Strongylus vulgaris. The parasite burden was low to moderate in horses and donkeys, higher in mules; however, it did not affect the body condition, nor the haematological values (P>0.05). Results suggest that in spite of the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equines involved in this trial are not being seriously affected, as shown by the body condition and haematological parameters.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

DS-WHW-UNAM jointly training veterinary students of Mexico in equine practice: A way to raise equine welfare for long term

Citation

Omar Uriega-Montafur, L. A. Montes-Huidobro, Mariano Hernandez-Gil. December 2010. DS-WHW-UNAM jointly training veterinary students of Mexico in equine practice: A way to raise equine welfare for long term. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Proceedings
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

Empathy education about working animals in primary schools of central Ethiopia

Citation

G. Lemessa, Alemayehu Fanta, E. Bojia, B. Amare, Mersha Tesfaye, S. J. Price, Stephen Blakeway. December 2010. Empathy education about working animals in primary schools of central Ethiopia. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Abstract

The Donkey Sanctuary in Ethiopia launched an empathy education programme at 7 primary schools in 2005, to nurture school children's empathy with working animals. The objective of the programme was to enhance the ability of schoolchildren to build smooth relationships and positive attitudes towards animals, resulting in the creation of responsible citizens who are compassionate, kind, and love and have empathy with all animals. To show empathy is to identify with another's feelings. It is to put yourself emotionally in the place of another.

Proceedings
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

Community-based harness development initiative for pack donkeys: a progress report, Ethiopia

Citation

Mersha Tesfaye, E. Bojia, Feseha Gebreab, G. Ayele, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Lemessa, E. Manyahilishal, F. Seyoum, B. Amare, N. Dereje, C. Chala, A. Abebe, A. Gete, Chris Garrett, Joe Anzuino, Rob Nicholls, Mulugeta Getachew. December 2010. Community-based harness development initiative for pack donkeys: a progress report, Ethiopia. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Proceedings
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

When is dental treatment required in working equids? A survey of Mexican donkeys

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford. December 2010. When is dental treatment required in working equids? A survey of Mexican donkeys. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Abstract

A small survey of working donkeys in Mexico illustrated a high prevalence of dental disease (62%). However, only 18% of cases were severe enough to have an apparent impact on the a donkey's welfare and required dental treatment. Many donkeys manage well with some degree of dental disease and owner education about agerelated dental disease and the need for supplemental feeding will alleviate some of the welfare implications of dental disease, particularly where resources for dental treatment are limited.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Brooke
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

The Donkey Sanctuary India's management of equine influenza in Noida and the neighbouring operational areas: A summary

Citation

P. Sushmita, Nath Surajit, Ganesh Murugan. December 2010. The Donkey Sanctuary India's management of equine influenza in Noida and the neighbouring operational areas: A summary. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Abstract

This paper gives details of how an outbreak of equine influenza in Noida and neighbouring operational areas was managed by the Donkey Sanctuary India. It was managed by establishing a probable diagnosis, confirming the existence of an outbreak, confirmatory diagnosis, and the implementation of treatment control and preventative measures.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Brooke
Publication date: 
31 December 2010

Development of a quantitative multivariable radiographic method to evaluate anatomic changes associated with laminitis in the forefeet of donkeys

Citation

Simon N. Collins, Sue J. Dyson, Rachel C. Murray, Richard Newton, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford. August 2012. Development of a quantitative multivariable radiographic method to evaluate anatomic changes associated with laminitis in the forefeet of donkeys. American Journal of Veterinary Research. 73:8. 1207-1218.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
8 August 2012
Volume: 
73
Issue: 
8
Page numbers: 
1207-1218
DOI number: 
10.2460/ajvr.73.8.1207
Abstract

Objective—To establish and validate an objective method of radiographic diagnosis of anatomic changes in laminitic forefeet of donkeys on the basis of data from a comprehensive series of radiographic measurements.

Animals—85 donkeys with and 85 without forelimb laminitis for baseline data determination; a cohort of 44 donkeys with and 18 without forelimb laminitis was used for validation analyses.

Procedures—For each donkey, lateromedial radiographic views of 1 weight-bearing forelimb were obtained; images from 11 laminitic and 2 nonlaminitic donkeys were excluded (motion artifact) from baseline data determination. Data from an a priori selection of 19 measurements of anatomic features of laminitic and nonlaminitic donkey feet were analyzed by use of a novel application of multivariate statistical techniques. The resultant diagnostic models were validated in a blinded manner with data from the separate cohort of laminitic and nonlaminitic donkeys.

Results—Data were modeled, and robust statistical rules were established for the diagnosis of anatomic changes within laminitic donkey forefeet. Component 1 scores ≤ −3.5 were indicative of extreme anatomic change, and scores from −2.0 to 0.0 denoted modest change. Nonlaminitic donkeys with a score from 0.5 to 1.0 should be considered as at risk for laminitis.

Conclusions and Clinical Relevance—Results indicated that the radiographic procedures evaluated can be used for the identification, assessment, and monitoring of anatomic changes associated with laminitis. Screening assessments by use of this method may enable early detection of mild anatomic change and identification of at-risk donkeys.

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