equid

Aerobic bacterial isolates in equids and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern

Citation

A. Biruhtesfa, A. Yilkal, E. Bojia, G. Ayele, Mulugeta Getachew. January 2007. Aerobic bacterial isolates in equids and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. International Journal of Applied Research in Veterinary Medicine. 5:3. 107-112.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2007
Volume: 
5
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
107-112
DOI number: 
N/A
Online references

Practical feeding and condition scoring for donkeys

Citation

Faith A. Burden. October 2011. Practical feeding and condition scoring for donkeys. Equine Veterinary Education.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 October 2011
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3292.2011.00314.x
Abstract

Donkeys have evolved to thrive on highly fibrous, poor quality foodstuffs and have evolved as browsers as well as grazers. As such, they have different nutrient requirements with significantly lower energy and protein needs when compared with horses. Dietary management of donkeys is essential when kept in a temperate climate as they are prone to obesity and related disorders. A diet based on fibrous forages and limited grazing is usually sufficient for the majority of donkeys and mules. Specialist feeding is discussed in this article.

Online references

Necropsy survey of gastric ulcers in a population of aged donkeys: Prevalence, lesion description and risk factors

Citation

Faith A. Burden, John Gallagher, Alexandra K. Thiemann, Andrew F. Trawford. September 2008. Necropsy survey of gastric ulcers in a population of aged donkeys: Prevalence, lesion description and risk factors. Animal. 3:2. 287-293.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 September 2008
Journal: 
Animal
Volume: 
3
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
287-293
Abstract

There is no information about the prevalence of gastric ulceration in donkeys or potential risk factors for its presence in donkeys. The donkey is a stoic, hardy animal that has not previously been thought to suffer from this disease. However, gastric ulceration was found to be a problem in a population of non-working UK donkeys resident at the Donkey Sanctuary and its prevalence was estimated by examining necropsy data over a 2-year period during 2005 to 2006. Associations with clinical and management factors were determined. In total, 426 donkeys were examined at necropsy to determine the presence of gastric ulceration. Lesions were described and scored according to a four-point scale. Management and clinical data from these donkeys were analysed to identify potential risk factors for the presence of gastric ulceration. Terminal blood samples were also studied to determine whether animals were exhibiting hyperlipaemia prior to death. Results showed that 41% (n = 174) of the donkeys studied had evidence of gastric ulceration at necropsy. Most (49%) of the ulcers were of a medium size (area of xs2A7E2 cm2 – <10 cm2) and the most common site for ulcers was the margo plicatus. Of the donkeys examined, 18% had hyperlipaemia prior to or death or euthanasia and this was a risk factor for donkeys developing gastric ulceration; 62% of hyperlipaemia cases also displayed gastric ulceration (P < 0.001). Kidney disease was a potential risk factor (P = 0.02), with 74% of these animals having gastric ulceration. Donkeys that died or were euthanased due to respiratory disease were at a decreased risk of developing ulceration (P = 0.01) Donkeys fed a carbohydrate-based diet were more likely (P < 0.001) to have gastric ulceration than those fed a fibre-only diet, with 55% having gastric ulceration compared with 33% in the fibre-only group. This study has shown that gastric ulceration is commonly observed in donkeys at necropsy and may be extensive.

Online references

A survey of seasonal patterns in strongyle faecal worm egg counts of working equids of the Central Midlands and Lowlands, Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Feseha Gebreab, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid. December 2008. A survey of seasonal patterns in strongyle faecal worm egg counts of working equids of the Central Midlands and Lowlands, Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Production. 40:8. 637-642.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 December 2008
Volume: 
40
Issue: 
8
Page numbers: 
637-642
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11250-008-9142-5
Abstract

A study was conducted for two consecutive years (1998-1999) to determine the seasonal patterns of strongyle infection in working donkeys of Ethiopia. For the purpose 2385 donkeys from midland and lowland areas were examined for the presence of parasitic ova. A hundred percent prevalence of strongyle infection with similar seasonal pattern of strongyle faecal worm egg output was obtained in all study areas. However, seasonal variations in the number of strongyle faecal worm egg output were observed in all areas. The highest mean faecal worm egg outputs were recorded during the main rainy season (June to October) in both years in all areas. Although an increase in the mean strongyle faecal egg output was obtained in the short rainy season (March-April) followed by a drop in the short dry season (May), there was no statistically significant difference between the short rainy season and long dry season (Nov-Feb) (P > 0.05). A statistically significant difference however, was obtained between the main rainy season and short rainy season, and between the main rainy season and dry season (P < 0.05). Based on the results obtained it is suggested that the most economical and effective control of strongyles can be achieved by strategic deworming programme during the hot dry pre-main rainy season (May), when the herbage coverage is scarce and helminthologically 'sterile', and the arrested development of the parasites is suppose to be terminating. This could insure the greatest proportion of the existing worm population to be exposed to anthelmintic and also reduces pasture contamination and further infection in the subsequent wet season.

Online references
Syndicate content