equine

Equine cestodosis: A sero-epidemiological study of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in Ethiopia

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Giles T. Innocent, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Feseha Gebreab, Stuart W. Reid, Faith A. Burden, Sandy Love. February 2012. Equine cestodosis: A sero-epidemiological study of Anoplocephala perfoliata infection in Ethiopia. Veterinary Research Communications.

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Publication date: 
4 February 2012
DOI number: 
10.1007/s11259-012-9516-z
Abstract

A 12/13 kDa antigen, tapeworm ELISA test, developed for use in horses, was used to detect parasite-specific serum antibody, IgG(T), in the serum of donkeys. In a pilot study the 12/13 kDa antigen was tested and proved to detect the antibody, IgG(T), in donkey sera. Blood samples from 797 donkeys, naturally exposed to cestode infection, from four geographical localities were collected and sera were prepared and analysed. There was substantial serological evidence that donkeys were potentially infected with A. perfoliata. A range of ELISA OD values were obtained from the serological assay. Over 26% and 7.5% of the donkeys were moderately and highly infected, respectively, showing at least a 34% sero-prevalence. The rest, 66.1%, were either with low infection intensity or negative for A. perfoliata infection. The risk of infections, both in sero-prevalence and intensity, as determined by ELISA optical density (OD), were highest in the highland areas of Ethiopia where pastures are low-lying and wet, and permanent pasture management is regularly practised. Sex, age and body condition of the donkeys had no significant effect either on prevalence of the infection or on the serum antibody level. These results indicate a risk of intestinal disorders, particularly, colic, associated with A. perfoliata infection in donkeys.

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Hyperlipemia in a Population of Aged Donkeys: Description, Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors

Citation

Faith A. Burden, Nicole du Toit, Elizabeth Hazell-Smith, Andrew F. Trawford. August 2011. Hyperlipemia in a Population of Aged Donkeys: Description, Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

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Publication date: 
1 August 2011
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00798.x
Abstract

Background: Hyperlipemia is a common disorder of the donkey, with mortality rates of up to 80% reported. Such a poor prognosis makes prevention of this disorder or amelioration in the early stages crucial.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of hyperlipemia in a population of donkeys and to determine risk factors for development of the disease.

Animals: A total of 449 cases were investigated from a population of 3829 donkeys; donkeys were resident at The Donkey Sanctuary, a charity providing refuge for unwanted donkeys in the UK. Animals were selected on the basis of presence of clinical disease.

Methods: A retrospective case–control study design was used, and all donkeys presenting with hyperlipemia over a 4-year period were included. Each case was matched with 2 controls that had not suffered from hyperlipemia in the previous month. Multivariable analysis was carried out to determine risk factors.

Results: A total of 449 clinical cases of hyperlipemia were reported with an associated mortality rate of 48.5%. Concurrent disease was present in 72% of donkeys and was the greatest risk factor (OR = 76.98); others included cardboard bedding (OR = 3.86), movement (OR = 3.94), weight loss (OR = 6.4), dental disease (OR = 1.73), and concentrate feeding (OR = 1.87).

Conclusions: This study shows that this population of donkeys in the UK often develops hyperlipemia, particularly in response to stress or primary illness, and provides useful insights in to health and management risk factors that may be addressed to decrease the risk of hyperlipemia both in the study population and in other similar donkey populations.

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