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Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK: Part 1: Prevalence of dental disorders

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Padraic M. Dixon. April 2009. Clinical dental examinations of 357 donkeys in the UK: Part 1: Prevalence of dental disorders. Equine Veterinary Journal. 41:4. 390-394.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 April 2009
Volume: 
41
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
390-394
DOI number: 
10.2746/042516409X368912
Abstract

Reasons for performing the study

Dental disorders have a high prevalence in older donkeys and horses, but the nature and pathogenesis of many of these disorders have yet to be established.

Objectives

The identification and determination of the prevalence of important dental disorders in different age groups in a large single population of donkeys, to establish a better understanding of the nature and pathogenesis of these disorders.

Methods

A prospective cross-sectional study was performed on the donkey population at The Donkey Sanctuary with detailed oral examinations of 357 donkeys within 7 different age groups (age range 2-53 years) recorded.

Results

The prevalence of dental disease in all donkeys was 73%, increasing in prevalence from 28% in the youngest to 98% in the oldest age group. There was an increase in prevalence of commonly recognised dental disorders with increasing age, such as: diastemata (3.8% in youngest to 86% in oldest group); missing teeth (0-56%); overgrown teeth (15-86%); worn teeth (8-84%); displaced teeth (0-38%); and periodontal disease (0-28%).

Conclusions

There was a significant increase in the prevalence of dental disorders with increasing age with the largest significant increase for most dental disorders occurring in the 15-20 year age group. POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE: Most dental disorders significantly increase in prevalence in the 15-20 year age group and, therefore, prophylactic geriatric dental treatment in donkeys should be commenced from age 15 years.

Online references

Idiopathic typhlocolitis in 40 aged donkeys

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Mulugeta Getachew, Andrew F. Trawford. February 2010. Idiopathic typhlocolitis in 40 aged donkeys. Equine Veterinary Education. 22:2. 53-57.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2010
Volume: 
22
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
53-57
DOI number: 
10.2746/095777309X480894
Abstract

Typhlocolitis was diagnosed in 40 aged donkeys at routine post mortem examinations subjected to euthanasia for colic-related clinical signs at The Donkey Sanctuary. Gross pathological changes included oedema, ulceration and haemorrhage involving the caecum and ventral colon. Histopathology indicated endoparasite and bacterial associated inflammation in 20 and 11 cases, respectively. Bacterial culture in 18 cases did not yield a definite aetiological agent. Other management and stress related factors were looked at to identify obvious risk factors. This report describes the clinical, biochemical and haematological parameters and pathological changes observed in 40 donkeys diagnosed with typhlocolitis.

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Radiological anatomy of the donkey's foot: Objective characterisation of the normal and laminitic donkey foot

Citation

Simon N. Collins, Sue J. Dyson, M. C. Murray, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford. July 2011. Radiological anatomy of the donkey's foot: Objective characterisation of the normal and laminitic donkey foot. Equine Veterinary Journal. 43:4. 478-86.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 July 2011
Volume: 
43
Issue: 
4
Page numbers: 
478-86
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3306.2010.00312.x
Abstract

Reasons for performing study

Anatomical change within a laminitic foot is of diagnostic and prognostic importance. A lateromedial radiograph represents the current 'gold standard' by which these changes are identified. Detection of anatomical change is dependent upon a priori knowledge of normality and subjective assessment alone may not identify modest change. Normal baseline data is, therefore, needed against which objective comparisons can be made. There is little information regarding the radiological anatomy of the donkey foot, hence an equine model has been widely adopted. However, descriptive accounts suggest fundamental anatomical differences between these 2 species.

Objectives

To characterise objectively the radiological anatomy of normal donkey feet and define the nature and extent of anatomical change associated with laminitis.

Methods

The anatomy of the forefoot was quantified from lateromedial radiographs of 83 normal and 74 laminitic donkeys, using a computer based imaging system. Data were analysed using univariate and bivariate statistical methods. Results: Baseline data were established that define the radiological characteristics of the anatomy of normal donkey feet. The key hoof, bone and weightbearing stance parameters of lateromedial radiographs have been evaluated. Laminitis was associated with significant rotation and distal displacement of the distal phalanx, increases in integument depth and morphometric change to the distal phalanx (P<0.05).

Conclusions

This study challenges the validity of applying an equine model to the radiological anatomy of donkey feet. Hence, the diagnosis of anatomical change cannot be based on baseline data previously given for the horse and guidelines should be revised accordingly for the donkey. Potential relevance: This study provides an objective basis for the identification of anatomical change associated with laminitis in donkey feet.

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