bovine papillomavirus

Epidemiologic analysis of a sarcoid outbreak involving 12 of 111 donkeys in Northern Italy

Citation

Hans Abel-Reichwald, Edmund K Hainisch, Sophie Zahalka, Annunziata Corteggio, Giuseppe Borzacchiello, Barbara Massa, Luca Merlone, Lubna Nasir, Faith A. Burden, Sabine Brandt. October 2016. Epidemiologic analysis of a sarcoid outbreak involving 12 of 111 donkeys in Northern Italy. Veterinary Microbiology. 196. 85-92.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
15 October 2016
Volume: 
196
Page numbers: 
85-92
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.021
Abstract

Equine sarcoids develop upon bovine papillomavirus type 1 or 2 (BPV1, BPV2) infection in conjunction with trauma and represent the most common tumour disease in horses and other equids, including donkeys. In face of a sarcoid outbreak involving 12 of 111 donkeys and mules at the ‘Rifugio degli Asinelli’, a subsidiary charity organization of The Donkey Sanctuary, non-invasively collected sample material including crusts, dandruff, swabs and hair roots was collected from sarcoid-affected and 26 healthy donkeys, as well as dandruff from a grooming kit and tabanids caught from or in the vicinity of sarcoid patients. In addition five previously collected sarcoids stored in formalin were provided.

DNA isolated from collected material was tested for the presence of the BPV1/2 E5 oncogene using PCR. Positive samples were further analysed by E2/E4 and LCR PCR and amplicon sequencing to determine a possible common source of infection via comparative alignment of intralesional BPV1/2 gene variants. IC/PCR was used to assess sample aliquots for the presence of BPV1/2 virions, and IHC to analyse five tumours for BPV1 E5 and L1 protein expression.

All sarcoid-affected donkeys, two of 55 tabanids and dandruff from a curry comb tested positive for BPV1/2 E5, yet negative by IC/PCR. Healthy animals were BPV1/2-free. IHC revealed different levels of intralesional E5 and L1 expression. A series of BPV1 E5, E2, and LCR variants and BPV2 E5 were detected from donkeys, indicating that they had accidently developed sarcoids at about the same time rather than having acquired disease from each other.

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Vaccination of sarcoid-bearing donkeys with chimeric virus-like particles of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1

Citation

S. G. Ashrafi, K. Piuko, Faith A. Burden, ZhengQiang Yuan, Elizabeth A. Gault, Matthias Müller, Andrew F. Trawford, Stuart W. Reid, Lubna Nasir, M. Saveria Campo. January 2008. Vaccination of sarcoid-bearing donkeys with chimeric virus-like particles of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1. Journal of General Virology. 89:1. 148-157.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 January 2008
Volume: 
89
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
148-157
DOI number: 
10.1099/vir.0.83267-0
Abstract

Equine sarcoids are fibroblastic skin tumours affecting equids worldwide. While the pathogenesis is not entirely understood, infection with bovine papillomavirus (BPV) type 1 (and less commonly type 2) has been implicated as a major factor in the disease process. Sarcoids very seldom regress and in fact often recrudesce following therapy. Nothing is known about the immune response of the equine host to BPV. Given that the viral genes are expressed in sarcoids, it is reasonable to assume that vaccination of animals against the expressed viral proteins would lead to the induction of an immune response against the antigens and possible tumour rejection. To this end we vaccinated sarcoid-bearing donkeys in a placebo-controlled trial using chimeric virus-like particles (CVLPs) comprising BPV-1 L1 and E7 proteins. The results show a tendency towards enhanced tumour regression and reduced progression in the vaccinated group compared to control animals. Although promising, further studies are required with larger animal groups to definitely conclude that vaccination with CVLPs is a potential therapy for the induction of sarcoid regression.

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The detection of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 DNA in flies

Citation

Margaret Finlay, ZhengQiang Yuan, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford, I. M. Morgan, M. Saveria Campo, Lubna Nasir. September 2009. The detection of Bovine Papillomavirus Type 1 DNA in flies. Virus Research. 144:1-2. 315-317.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 September 2009
Journal: 
Virus Research
Volume: 
144
Issue: 
1-2
Page numbers: 
315-317
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.virusres.2009.04.015
Abstract

BPVs are double stranded DNA viruses that can infect several species other than the natural host, cattle, including equids. In equids, BPV-1, and, less commonly BPV-2, infection gives rise to fibroblastic tumours of the skin. Whilst a causal relationship between BPV-1/2 and equine sarcoids is now well established, how the disease is transmitted is not known. In this study we show BPV-1 DNA can be detected in flies trapped in the proximity of sarcoid-affected animals. Sequence analysis of the BPV-1 LCR from flies indicates that flies harbour BPV-1 LCR sequence variants II and IV which are commonly detected in equine sarcoids. These data suggest that flies may be able to transmit BPV-1 between equids.

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