cardiac

Echocardiographic reference ranges for sedentary donkeys in the UK

Citation

Susan L. Roberts, Joanna Dukes-McEwan. August 2016. Echocardiographic reference ranges for sedentary donkeys in the UK. The Veterinary Record.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
18 August 2016
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.103734
Abstract

The aim of this study was to provide two-dimensional (2D) and M-mode echocardiographic reference ranges from a sample of the UK population of donkeys including geriatrics (>30 years), owned by The Donkey Sanctuary, and to assess the influence of gender, weight and age on these variables. A total of 36 donkeys with no clinical or echocardiographic evidence of cardiovascular disease were examined; 24 geldings and 12 females, aged 3–45 years old, weighing 130–262 kg. Left atrial to aortic ratio was larger in geldings (P=0.004). There was no significant difference for left ventricular M-mode diastolic diameter between females and geldings (P=0.121) after exclusion of one heavy female outlier. 2D measurements significantly increased with bodyweight including maximal left atrial diameter (R2=0.112; P=0.046), aortic diameter at various levels (e.g. annulus: R2=0.35; P<0.001) and the pulmonary artery diameter (R2=0.124; P=0.035). M-mode measurements were not significantly influenced by weight other than the left ventricular free wall in systole (R2=0.118; P=0.041). Age and heart rate did not have any significant effect on echocardiographic variables. This is the first UK study to report on echocardiographic reference ranges of sedentary donkeys across a wide age range and shows differences compared with reference ranges from working donkeys.

Online references

Assessment of cardiovascular disease in the donkey: clinical, echocardiographic and pathological observations

Citation

Susan L. Roberts, Joanna Dukes-McEwan. August 2016. Assessment of cardiovascular disease in the donkey: clinical, echocardiographic and pathological observations. The Veterinary Record.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
17 August 2016
DOI number: 
10.1136/vr.103733
Abstract

The Donkey Sanctuary (DS) owns 3500–4000 donkeys, estimated to be about 35 per cent of the UK population. Although postmortem surveys suggest a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease in donkeys, there is sparse clinical information about cardiovascular examination findings and echocardiographic findings in health and disease. In this cross-sectional study, auscultation findings were recorded, and in a subset of donkeys, echocardiography was used to screen for structural and functional cardiac disease. 202 donkeys were examined; 117 geldings and 85 females. Heart sounds S1 and S2 were detected in all donkeys, but none had audible S3. S4 was detected in nine (4.5 per cent; significantly older than those without S4; P<0.001). A heart murmur was detected in four donkeys. Echocardiography identified these to be due to a ventricular septal defect in one, and aortic regurgitation in three. An additional 43 donkeys had echocardiography. A further 10 donkeys were identified to have aortic insufficiency, but no other valvular regurgitation. 76/202 donkeys subsequently underwent postmortem examination. Three showed degenerative aortic valve changes. One donkey had nodular lesions in the intima of proximal aorta and sinus of Valsalva. Histopathology showed multifocal chronic nodular eosinophilic arteritis, consistent with verminous arteritis. The DS pathology database identified other similar cases.

Online references
Syndicate content