diastema

Polyodontia in donkeys

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, F. Sanroman-Llorens, E. Bastos, F. San Roman, C. Viegas. March 2013. Polyodontia in donkeys. Equine Veterinary Education. 25:7. 363-367.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
24 March 2013
Volume: 
25
Issue: 
7
Page numbers: 
363-367
DOI number: 
10.1111/eve.12030  
Abstract

Polyodontia is defined as the presence of teeth in excess of the normal dental formula. In equids, supernumerary teeth are uncommon but, when present, are usually located mainly in the caudal aspects of the cheek teeth rows (distomolars), also being found adjacent to normal cheek teeth or even in an ectopic location. It is believed that this disorder is a result of an inappropriate differentiation of dental germinal tissue during gestational development, with external trauma also acting as an initiating factor, when teeth germs are affected. The presence of these abnormal teeth can lead to axial displacement, dental overgrowths, dental-related soft tissue damage, diastemata formation, periodontal disease and development of secondary sinusitis. A large prospective, cross-sectional study was performed in 800 donkeys, with the aim to investigate the prevalence and aetiopathogenesis of clinically diagnosed oral and dental disorders. Polyodontia was recorded in 2.25% of the donkeys, presenting 36 supernumerary teeth, with 2.80% being incisors and 97.20% cheek teeth, with prevalence increasing with age. The caudal aspects of the maxillary cheek teeth rows were the most common locations for supernumerary teeth development (distomolars). The mandible was far less commonly affected than the maxilla. Although polyodontia is uncommon in donkeys, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of dental disease. A methodical oral examination and a complete radiographic survey of the entire dental arcades are crucial for a correct early diagnosis and treatment plan implementation. The increasing prevalence of fully erupted supernumerary teeth recorded in older groups suggested a late onset eruption process, and therefore, in donkeys undergoing regular dental prophylaxis, the presence of previously unnoticed supernumerary teeth should always be sought.

Online references

Dimensions of diastemata and associated periodontal food pockets in donkey cheek teeth

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Faith A. Burden, Lee Gosden, Padraic M. Dixon. April 2008. Dimensions of diastemata and associated periodontal food pockets in donkey cheek teeth. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry. 26:1.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 April 2008
Volume: 
26
Issue: 
1
Abstract

Equine cheek teeth (CT) diastemata often cause deep periodontal food pocketing and are therefore regarded as a painful dental disorder of equidae. However there appears to be no information available on the size or shape of these diastemata. This post mortem study examined 16 donkey skulls (mean age = 32-years) containing 45 CT diastemata to define the anatomical shape and dimensions of these diastemata, and of the associated periodontal food pockets that occur with this disorder. Diastemata were found to more commonly involve mandibular (56.0%) compared with maxillary CT (44.0%), and 71.0% of these diastemata had adjacent intercurrent dental disorders that may have predisposed donkeys to the diastemata. The median widths of all diastemata were 2.0-mm at the occlusal surface and 3.1-mm at the gingival margin, with no diferences in widths between the lateral or medial aspects of diastemata. Diastemata were defined as open (60.00%) or valve (40.00%) based on their gross appearance. This classification was confirmed to be accurate by measurements that showed valve diastemata to have an occlusal to gingival width ratio of 0.4, in contrast to open diastemata where this ratio was 1.07. Food was impacted in 89.0% of diastemata, but all diastemata had adjacent periodontal disease. Periodontal food pocketing was present adjacent to 76.0% of diastemata, more commonly on the lateral aspect (73.0% prevalence; mean pocket depth = 4.1-mm) than the medial aspect (47.0% prevalence; mean pocket depth = 2.4-mm). The depth of periodontal pockets of diastemata was not associated with the height of the erupted crowns of adjacent CT.

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