endangered breeds

Pedigree and herd characterization of a donkey breed vulnerable to extinction

Citation

M. Quaresma, A. M. F. Martins, J. B. Rodrigues, J. Colaço, R. Payan-Carreira. March 2014. Pedigree and herd characterization of a donkey breed vulnerable to extinction. Animal. 8:3. 354-359.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 March 2014
Journal: 
Animal
Volume: 
8
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
354-359
Abstract

Most donkey and local horse breeds are vulnerable to extinction as mechanization of agriculture progress throughout the world. The present study analyzed the pedigree and herd records of the donkey Asinina de Miranda breed (RAM), identifying genealogical and human factors that may affect the breed genetic diversity in the future and suggesting suitable strategies to breed preservation, early on the conservation program. The breeding rate was very low, with a ratio of foaling/live animals of 0.23 (178/760). The estimated number of founders and ancestors contributing to the reference population was 128 and 121. The number of founder herds in the reference population was 64, with an effective number of founder herds for the reference population of 7.6. The mean age of herd owners was 65.50±0.884 years, with a negative association among the herd size and owner’s age (P<0.001). In contrast, the size of the herd and the ownership of a male were both positively associated (P<0.001) with the herd number of in-born foals. Both the owners’ age and the herd location (RAM home region v. dispersal region) were negatively associated with the foaling number (P<0.001). The main identified risk factors were: low breeding rates; low number of males and their unequal contribution to the genetic pool; unequal contribution of the herds to genetic pool; and advanced age of herd owners.
Published online: 13 December 2013

Online references

A clinical survey on the prevalence and types of cheek teeth disorders present in 400 Zamorano-Leonés and 400 Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus)

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, Padraic M. Dixon, E. Bastos, F. San Roman, C. Viegas. November 2013. A clinical survey on the prevalence and types of cheek teeth disorders present in 400 Zamorano-Leonés and 400 Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus). Veterinary Record. 173:23. 581.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
4 November 2013
Journal: 
Veterinary Record
Volume: 
173
Issue: 
23
Page numbers: 
581
Abstract

Dental disease is now recognised as a major but often unrecognised disorder of equids, including horses and donkeys. However, very few large clinical studies have documented the prevalence and type of dental disease present in different equid populations and no dental studies have been reported in Zamorano-Leonés or Mirandês donkeys, two endangered donkey breeds. Clinical and detailed oral examinations were performed in 400 Mirandês and 400 Zamorano-Leonés donkeys in Portugal and Spain. It was found that just 4.5 per cent had ever received any previous dental care. Cheek teeth (CT) disorders were present in 82.8 per cent of these donkeys, ranging from a prevalence of 29.6 per cent in the <2.5-year-old group to 100 per cent in the >25-year-old group. These CT disorders included enamel overgrowths (73.1 per cent prevalence but with just 6.3 per cent having associated soft tissue injuries), focal overgrowths (37.3 per cent), periodontal disease (23.5 per cent) and diastemata (19.9 per cent). Peripheral caries was present in 5.9 per cent of cases, but inexplicably, infundibular caries was very rare (1.3 per cent prevalence); this may have been due to their almost fully foraged diet. The high prevalence of enamel overgrowths in these donkeys, most which never received concentrates, also raises questions about the aetiology of this disorder. This very high prevalence of CT disorders, especially in older donkeys, was of great welfare concern in some cases and emphasises the need for routine dental care in these cases on welfare grounds and in order to help preserve these unique breeds.

Online references

Percutaneous approach for sialolith removal in a donkey

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, S. Mora, E. Bastos, C. Viegas, F. San Roman. March 2013. Percutaneous approach for sialolith removal in a donkey. Journal of Veterinary Dentistry. 30:1. 32-35.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 March 2013
Volume: 
30
Issue: 
1
Page numbers: 
32-35
Abstract

Salivary duct lithiasis is a condition characterized by the partial or total obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct due to the formation of sialoliths. A 9-year-old female donkey, belonging to the unique and endangered indigenous breed of donkey in Portugal, was diagnosed with a sialolith in the rostral portion of the right parotid duct based on clinical, oral, dental, and radiographic examination results. Surgical removal of the sialolith was done through a percutaneous approach.

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A clinical survey evaluating the prevalence of incisor disorders in Zamorano-Leonés and Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus)

Citation

J. B. Rodrigues, S. Araujo, F. Sanroman-Llorens, E. Bastos, F. San Roman, C. Viegas. September 2013. A clinical survey evaluating the prevalence of incisor disorders in Zamorano-Leonés and Mirandês donkeys (Equus asinus). Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 33:9. 710-718.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 September 2013
Volume: 
33
Issue: 
9
Page numbers: 
710-718
Abstract

Recent clinical and post-mortem studies documented a high prevalence of dental disorders in donkeys, but less information appears to be available specifically about incisor disorders in donkeys. A study to investigate the prevalence of oral and dental disorders affecting incisor teeth was performed, in two endangered breeds of donkeys: the Mirandês Donkey and the Zamorano-Leonés Donkey, through a prospective cross-sectional study in 800 donkeys, divided in 7 age groups (ranging 0-34 years), in 86 villages inside their geographic area of distribution, thinking on welfare and genetic preservation issues. The 74% of donkeys suffer from incisors disorders, ranging from 56.8% in the youngest group to 90.3% in group 7. Craniofacial abnormalities (49.25%), abnormalities in the occlusal surface (21.63%), fractures (17%), periodontal disease (16.13%) and diastemata (14.38%) were the main disorders recorded. Incisors disorders are significant, presenting at a much higher prevalence when compared to other studies involving the incisor teeth of equids, affecting all ages but particularly in older animals. This study provide essential information in dentistry applied to donkeys but also highlighted the importance of regular dental care in endangered breeds, improving their welfare and preserving a unique genetic heritage.

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