endoparasite

Anthelmintic control of lungworm in donkeys

Citation

Hilary Clayton, Andrew F. Trawford. Anthelmintic control of lungworm in donkeys. Equine Veterinary Journal. 13:3. 192-194.

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Publication details
Volume: 
13
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
192-194
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.2042-3306.1981.tb03483.x
Abstract

A field study was designed to investigate the re-establishment of patent lungworm infections in donkeys following an anthelmintic treatment regime which was effective against Dictyocaulus arnfieldi. In April 1979 faecal samples from 259 donkeys were examined and each animal classified as a negative, low positive or high positive excretor of lungworm larvae. During the summer the control group of 126 donkeys showed an increase in the number of excretors from 80 per cent in April to 91 per cent in October. At the same time there was a rise in the faecal larval output of individual animals so that by October 59 per cent were classified as high positive compared with only 20 per cent in April. The treated group of 133 donkeys received 3.5 g mebendazole daily for 5 days during April and as a result the number of excretors fell from 66 per cent pretreatment to 23 per cent one month after treatment. Despite exposure to infected pastures throughout the summer this figure was maintained at a comparatively low level and by October patent infections had been re-established in only 15 per cent of the donkeys that were negative after treatment.

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The evaluation of African and UK bioactive plant extracts for the control of equid gastrointestinal nematodes

Citation

Laura Peachey, Gina L. Pinchbeck, Claire Scantlebury, Gebre Tefera, Mulugeta Getachew, D. Etana, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford, Jacqui. B. Matthews, Jane Hodgkinson. The evaluation of African and UK bioactive plant extracts for the control of equid gastrointestinal nematodes. Presented at International Conference on Equine Infectious Diseases IX. (21 October - 26 October 2012). Kentucky, USA.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Tuesday 23 October 2012
Abstract

In the developed world the control of equid gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes, in particular cyathostomins, is increasingly challenging due the threat of anthelmintic resistance. In developing countries such as Ethiopia despite high parasite burdens, access to genuine anthelmintic treatment is limited. In both situations there is a need for alternative treatment and management regimens for effective parasite control and consequently there has been increasing interest in the use of bioactive plant extracts (BPEs) [1]. This study identified candidate plants in the UK and Ethiopia and evaluated their in vitro efficacy against cyathostomin populations derived from donkeys. A participatory rural appraisal (PRA) approach was used to identify five ethnoveterinary medicines for use in donkeys in Ethiopia. In the UK three plants were identified following extensive review of literature citing efficacy against GI nematodes of other host species and two extracts were provided courtesy of Prof Jerzy Behnke, University of Nottingham. Hydro-alcoholic extraction of dried plant material was carried out for the eight extracts prior to reconstitution in both water and DMSO. Efficacy of each extract was evaluated by egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval migration assay (LMA) using eggs and larvae recovered from the faeces of donkeys at the Donkey Sanctuary, UK. Dose response curves were produced and ED-50 values were calculated using probit analysis. Of the five Ethiopian plant extracts tested, four showed efficacy in the EHA and/or LMA. The two most efficacious were Acacia nilotica and Rumex abyssinicus in the EHA with ED-50 values of 0.72mg/ml and 1.29mg/ml respectively. Of the five UK extracts four showed efficacy in the EHA and/or LMA. The two most efficacious were Carica papaya (papaya) in the LMA and Allium sativum (garlic) in the EHA with ED-50 values of 18.9µM and 0.65mg/ml respectively. The two BPEs most efficacious in vivo for Ethiopia and the UK are to be carried forward to in vivo trials. This study has demonstrated in vitro efficacy of nine plant extracts against cyathostomins. There is evidence in the literature that these plant extracts show efficacy both in vitro and in vivo against GI nematodes in other species. Therefore these results have identified potential alternatives to synthetic anthelmintics for the treatment of cyathostomins that require further investigation.

[1] Githiori JB, Athanasiadou S, Thamsborg SM. Use of plants in novel approaches for control of gastrointestinal helminths in livestock with emphasis on small ruminants. Vet Para 2006;139, 308–320.

Online references

Drug Resistant Cyathostomins in Donkey Herds; Lessons in Management for All Equids

Citation

Andrew F. Trawford, Faith A. Burden. Drug Resistant Cyathostomins in Donkey Herds; Lessons in Management for All Equids. Presented at International Conference on Equine Infectious Diseases IX. (21 October - 26 October 2012). Kentucky, USA.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Sunday 23 October 2011
Abstract

The Donkey Sanctuary has over 2500 donkeys on its farms in the UK. Endoparasite control in these herds has been a major focus for the last 10 years. Monitoring of the herds has identified significant levels of anthelmintic resistance in the cyathostomins parasitising the donkey herds. Lack of efficacy of ivermectin, moxidectin, pyrantel and fenbendazole has been identified on multiple sites and in a number of cases treatment of donkeys harbouring such parasites is becoming increasingly challenging. Changes in management practices and approach to parasite treatment is discussed. Research to establish the extent of drug resistance and clinical significance of parasitism in donkeys is of primary concern; projects have focussed on identification of drug resistance, impacts of pasture management, validation of thresholds of faecal egg counts for treatment and alternatives to anthelmintics. Significant changes in management practices have been based upon results of these studies and new ideas and techniques are being developed. Treatment of all donkeys is carried out on the basis of a strongyle faecal egg count which is carried out on a 4-weekly basis throughout the year. Preliminary data and clinical experience has shown that increasing the FEC treatment threshold for healthy, mature donkeys to ≥ 1000 strongyle epg is sufficient to control clinical disease whilst reducing pasture contamination. Application of new treatment thresholds have reduced the reliance on chemical treatment. The mean number of anthelmintic treatments per year per animal was one in 2011; this is a significant reduction from previous dosing regimes where animals would be treated a minimum of four times per year. Animals are monitored frequently with problematic herds being 100% sampled every four weeks; such monitoring allows individualised treatment programmes and highlights reduced egg reappearance periods early. Reduced ERPs are investigated immediately with suspect animals undergoing a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) at the next treatment. Failed FECRTs trigger an alternative approach to treatment and further investigation. It is evident that some individual cases are becoming increasingly difficult to treat effectively; future trials of combinations of anthelmintics are being considered. Effective parasite control has also led to an increased emphasis on pasture management; dung is closely managed and carefully composted. Pasture is also rested in 6 month blocks with mixed species grazing instigated where possible. Good pasture management practices produce significant drops in pasture larval counts and is the primary mechanism used to reduce parasitism. Research and practical experience has emphasised the importance of good pasture management, treatment based upon faecal egg counts and routine assessment of efficacy of treatment. Researching and trialling higher dosing threshold has also led to significant decreases in the reliance of the organisation on anthelmintics with no recorded clinical effects. The lessons learnt from management of these large herds of donkeys may provide salient and important foundations for future equid herds that undoubtedly will experience similar problems in the future.

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Gatrointestinal parasite burden, body condition and haematological values in equines in the humid tropical areas of Mexico

Citation

M. P. Valdez-Cruz, Mariano Hernandez-Gil. October 2006. Gatrointestinal parasite burden, body condition and haematological values in equines in the humid tropical areas of Mexico. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Working equines in Mexico are distributed throughout the territory, but the management practices and the health and welfare conditions differ widely between regions depending on people's customs and specific climate conditions. The Eastern coast of México has an important equine population used for work in rural production systems. Something that owners and animal workers are concerned about is how the gastrointestinal parasite burden affects the equines nutritional status and health. This is because parasite reinfestations are most likely to occur in hot, humid climates. However, there are few reliable data to support this and the lack of information makes it difficult to design treating strategies and extension activities to ensure the health and welfare of equines in these areas. To address this, a trial was designed to determine the prevalence of animals infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, the parasite burdens and their effects on the nutritional status and haematological values of working equines from a tropical area of Mexico. One hundred and twelve equines were randomly selected in five different villages of the area. One sample of faeces and one sample of blood (in a tube containing EDTA) were obtained from every animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burden using the McMaster technique, proportions of nematodes species present through a coproculture, packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count, were measured. The nutritional status was assessed using body condition score. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. All calculations were done per species (horses, donkeys and mules) and community (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). Prevalence of infected equines was higher than 90%. The most common nematode species was Strongylus vulgaris. The parasite burden was low to moderate in horses and donkeys, higher in mules; however, it did not affect the body condition, nor the haematological values (P>0.05). Results suggest that in spite of the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equines involved in this trial are not being seriously affected, as shown by the body condition and haematological parameters.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Control of equine cyathostomins under the mid-lowland tropical weather condition of Ethiopia: a mathematical modelling approach

Citation

Mulugeta Getachew, Andrew F. Trawford, Feseha Gebreab, Stuart W. Reid, Sandy Love, Giles T. Innocent. October 2006. Control of equine cyathostomins under the mid-lowland tropical weather condition of Ethiopia: a mathematical modelling approach. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 5.96-109.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Sunday 29 October 2006
Proceedings
Volume: 
5
Number of pages: 
96-109
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
29 October 2006
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