hyperlipaemia

Nutritional Management of Hyperlipaemia

Citation

Andy Durham, Alexandra K. Thiemann. May 2015. Nutritional Management of Hyperlipaemia. Equine Veterinary Education.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
26 May 2015
DOI number: 
10.1111/eve.12366
Abstract

Hyperlipaemia is a disease resulting from excessive mobilisation of triglyceride stores such that plasma clearance processes become overwhelmed. Consequently increased plasma triglyceride concentrations (>5.6 mmol/l), visibly cloudy plasma and a sick, anorexic or hypophagic subject follow. Epidemiological studies have identified many predisposing and triggering factors and the attentive carer or veterinary surgeon should be alert to such risk factors so that the disease can be prevented, or at least identified and treated at an early stage. Hyperlipaemic subjects are invariably in a negative energy balance, and nutritional management therefore plays a central role in both the prevention and resolution of the disease.

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Hyperlipemia in a Population of Aged Donkeys: Description, Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors

Citation

Faith A. Burden, Nicole du Toit, Elizabeth Hazell-Smith, Andrew F. Trawford. August 2011. Hyperlipemia in a Population of Aged Donkeys: Description, Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

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Publication date: 
1 August 2011
DOI number: 
10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.00798.x
Abstract

Background: Hyperlipemia is a common disorder of the donkey, with mortality rates of up to 80% reported. Such a poor prognosis makes prevention of this disorder or amelioration in the early stages crucial.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to describe and determine the prevalence of hyperlipemia in a population of donkeys and to determine risk factors for development of the disease.

Animals: A total of 449 cases were investigated from a population of 3829 donkeys; donkeys were resident at The Donkey Sanctuary, a charity providing refuge for unwanted donkeys in the UK. Animals were selected on the basis of presence of clinical disease.

Methods: A retrospective case–control study design was used, and all donkeys presenting with hyperlipemia over a 4-year period were included. Each case was matched with 2 controls that had not suffered from hyperlipemia in the previous month. Multivariable analysis was carried out to determine risk factors.

Results: A total of 449 clinical cases of hyperlipemia were reported with an associated mortality rate of 48.5%. Concurrent disease was present in 72% of donkeys and was the greatest risk factor (OR = 76.98); others included cardboard bedding (OR = 3.86), movement (OR = 3.94), weight loss (OR = 6.4), dental disease (OR = 1.73), and concentrate feeding (OR = 1.87).

Conclusions: This study shows that this population of donkeys in the UK often develops hyperlipemia, particularly in response to stress or primary illness, and provides useful insights in to health and management risk factors that may be addressed to decrease the risk of hyperlipemia both in the study population and in other similar donkey populations.

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Nutritional risk factors for the development of hyperlipaemia in a population of donkeys

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Citation

Faith A. Burden, Elizabeth Hazell-Smith, Andrew F. Trawford. December 2010. Nutritional risk factors for the development of hyperlipaemia in a population of donkeys. Presented at 5th European Workshop on Equine Nutrition. (19 September - 22 September 2010). Cirencester, UK. 128.336.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Tuesday 21 September 2010
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Proceedings
Volume: 
128
Number of pages: 
336
ISBN (13-digit): 
978-90-8686-155-2
Publication date: 
1 December 2010

Necropsy survey of gastric ulcers in a population of aged donkeys: Prevalence, lesion description and risk factors

Citation

Faith A. Burden, John Gallagher, Alexandra K. Thiemann, Andrew F. Trawford. September 2008. Necropsy survey of gastric ulcers in a population of aged donkeys: Prevalence, lesion description and risk factors. Animal. 3:2. 287-293.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
1 September 2008
Journal: 
Animal
Volume: 
3
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
287-293
Abstract

There is no information about the prevalence of gastric ulceration in donkeys or potential risk factors for its presence in donkeys. The donkey is a stoic, hardy animal that has not previously been thought to suffer from this disease. However, gastric ulceration was found to be a problem in a population of non-working UK donkeys resident at the Donkey Sanctuary and its prevalence was estimated by examining necropsy data over a 2-year period during 2005 to 2006. Associations with clinical and management factors were determined. In total, 426 donkeys were examined at necropsy to determine the presence of gastric ulceration. Lesions were described and scored according to a four-point scale. Management and clinical data from these donkeys were analysed to identify potential risk factors for the presence of gastric ulceration. Terminal blood samples were also studied to determine whether animals were exhibiting hyperlipaemia prior to death. Results showed that 41% (n = 174) of the donkeys studied had evidence of gastric ulceration at necropsy. Most (49%) of the ulcers were of a medium size (area of xs2A7E2 cm2 – <10 cm2) and the most common site for ulcers was the margo plicatus. Of the donkeys examined, 18% had hyperlipaemia prior to or death or euthanasia and this was a risk factor for donkeys developing gastric ulceration; 62% of hyperlipaemia cases also displayed gastric ulceration (P < 0.001). Kidney disease was a potential risk factor (P = 0.02), with 74% of these animals having gastric ulceration. Donkeys that died or were euthanased due to respiratory disease were at a decreased risk of developing ulceration (P = 0.01) Donkeys fed a carbohydrate-based diet were more likely (P < 0.001) to have gastric ulceration than those fed a fibre-only diet, with 55% having gastric ulceration compared with 33% in the fibre-only group. This study has shown that gastric ulceration is commonly observed in donkeys at necropsy and may be extensive.

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