impaction colic

Case control study to investigate risk factors for impaction colic in donkeys in the UK

Citation

Ruth Cox, Faith A. Burden, Lee Gosden, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Gina L. Pinchbeck. November 2009. Case control study to investigate risk factors for impaction colic in donkeys in the UK. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 92:3. 179-187.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
15 November 2009
Volume: 
92
Issue: 
3
Page numbers: 
179-187
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.prevetmed.2009.08.012
Abstract

Impaction colic is the single most common type of colic diagnosed in a large population of donkeys (more than 2000 animals) at The Donkey Sanctuary, UK and the fatality rate from the disease is high. Here we identify risk factors for impaction colic in this population during 2006 using an unmatched case control study. There were 71 cases of impaction colic and multivariable analysis identified a number of variables associated with the disease. Management factors that increased the risk of impaction included paper bedding, feeding of concentrates, limited access to pasture and increasing number of carers. In addition health variables that were associated with an increased risk of impaction colic were weight loss, recent vaccination and a number of dental abnormalities. This study has identified variables which may help to identify donkeys at high risk of impaction colic; those with a history of weight loss and with concurrent dental pathology. Furthermore the study has also identified a number of variables that may be targeted to reduce the incidence of impaction colic in this donkey population, such as modification of concentrate feeding practices and pasture access.

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A case control study to investigate risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys

Citation

Nicole du Toit, Susan A. Kempson, Padraic M. Dixon. A case control study to investigate risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys. Presented at British Equine Veterinary Association Congress 2007. (12 September - 15 September 2007). Edinburgh, Scotland.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Wednesday 12 September 2007

A case control study to investigate risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys

Citation

Ruth Cox, Faith A. Burden, Lee Gosden, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Gina L. Pinchbeck. A case control study to investigate risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys. Presented at Society for Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine Conference 2008. (26 March - 28 March 2008). Liverpool, UK. 313.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Wednesday 26 March 2008
Abstract

Impaction colic is the single most common type of colic diagnosed in a large population of donkeys (more than 2000 animals) at The Donkey Sanctuary, UK and the fatality rate from the disease is high. This paper reports risk factors for impaction colic in this population during 2006, identified using an unmatched case-control study. There were 71 cases of impaction colic and multivariable analysis identified a number of variables associated with the disease. Management factors that increased the risk of impaction included paper bedding, feeding of concentrates, limited access to pasture and increasing number of carers. In addition, health variables that were associated with an increased risk of impaction colic were weight loss, recent vaccination and a number of dental abnormalities. The implications of these associations are described and possible practical measures that might be implemented to reduce the risk of the disease are discussed.

Proceedings
Number of pages: 
313
ISBN (10-digit): 
948073845
ISBN (13-digit): 
978-0948073847

Prognostic indicators for survival of impaction colic in UK donkeys

Citation

K. A. Bunker, Ruth Cox, Christopher Proudman, Faith A. Burden, Andrew F. Trawford, Gina L. Pinchbeck. Prognostic indicators for survival of impaction colic in UK donkeys. Presented at 9th International Equine Colic Research Symposium. (15 June - 18 June 2008). Liverpool, UK.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Sunday 15 June 2008

Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK

Citation

Ruth Cox, Christopher Proudman, Andrew F. Trawford, Faith A. Burden, Gina L. Pinchbeck. February 2007. Epidemiology of impaction colic in donkeys in the UK. BMC Veterinary Research. 3:1.

Authors
Publication details
Publication date: 
1 February 2007
Volume: 
3
Issue: 
1
DOI number: 
10.1186/1746-6148-3-1
Abstract

Background

Colic (abdominal pain) is a clinical condition of serious concern affecting the welfare and survival of donkeys at the Donkey Sanctuary in the UK. One of the most commonly reported causes is due to impacted ingesta in the large intestine ("impaction colic"). However little is known about the incidence of, or risk factors for, this condition. Here we describe the epidemiology of colic in donkeys, specifically impaction colic. We focus on temporal aspects of the disease and we identify environmental and management related risk factors for impaction colic in UK donkeys.

Results

There were 807 colic episodes in the population of 4596 donkeys between January 1st 2000 and March 31st 2005. The majority (54.8%) of episodes were due to a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of impaction of the gastrointestinal tract. The mortality risk for all colics (51.1%) was higher than reported in other equids. The incidence rate of all colics (5.9 episodes per 100 donkeys per year) and of impaction colic (3.2 episodes) was similar to that in horses. A retrospective matched case-control study of all impaction colics from January 2003 (193) indicated that older donkeys, those fed extra rations and those that previously suffered colic were at increased risk of impaction. Lighter body weight, musculo-skeletal problems, farm and dental disease were also significantly associated with a diagnosis of impaction colic.

Conclusion

To our knowledge this is the first study to estimate the incidence rate of colic in a large population of donkeys in the UK. In contrast to other equids, impaction was the most commonly reported cause of colic. We identified several risk factors for impaction colic. Increasing age, extra rations and previous colic are known risk factors for colic in other equids. Results support the hypothesis that dental disease is associated with impaction colic. Musculo-skeletal problems may be associated with colic for various reasons including change in amount of exercise or time at pasture. Other associated factors (weight and farm) are the subject of further research. Identification of risk factors for impaction colic may highlight high risk donkeys and may allow intervention strategies to be introduced to reduce the incidence of the disease.

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