tetanus

A comprehensive approach to minimise the fatal effects of tetanus and colic in donkeys of Ethiopia

Citation

E. Bojia, Feseha Gebreab, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Ayele, Mersha Tesfaye, Andrew F. Trawford, Joe Anzuino. October 2006. A comprehensive approach to minimise the fatal effects of tetanus and colic in donkeys of Ethiopia. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Retrospective analysis of the clinic database between 2003-2005 indicated that tetanus (27 cases), colic (134), rabies (7), strangles (17), hyena bite (429), dystocia (39), hernia (27) and car accidents are the major causes of direct mortality in donkeys of Central Ethiopia. The case fatality rates of donkeys affected by these diseases were: tetanus 22%, colic 27%, dystocia 15%, strangles 12%, hernia 11%, hyena bite 7% and rabies 100%, in clinical intervention sites of the Donkey Sanctuary. In the non-intervention areas the mortality rates are expected to be higher as there would be no treatment intervention. In this paper the two major causes of mortality: tetanus and colic are discussed. In the project in Ethiopia, treatments of advanced cases of tetanus following standard procedures have been successful. Of 27 cases treated 21 have been cured. The treatment has, however, been expensive, costing the project an average of 1400 Eth Birr per donkey (mature donkey costs 300-400 Eth Birr) and requiring a long period of hospitalisation. In an ideal situation, prophylactic immunisation is the best option. Economic realities however prohibit such an option from being feasible in countries like Ethiopia. An extension system and strategy that focus on the prevention of wounds using proper harnesses/saddles and institution of a sound hoof care programme is the option in mind. Colic characteristics are: gastric impaction 8%, obstruction of small intestines 7%, colonic impactions 19%, flatulent colic 23%, enterolithiasis/foreign bodies 24%, throboembolism due to strongylosis and undiagnosed cases 19%. Free access to mouldy or coarse feed, ingestion of polythene bags, fertiliser sacks and used fabrics of nylon clothes were the major causes. Common sites of lodgement for enteroliths were the proximal portion of the transverse colon, transverse and small colons. Enterolith/foreign body was often diagnosed in pregnant donkeys with colic. Few cases were relieved by surgery. A considerable number of the enteroliths were removed by manual traction. Veterinary intervention alone will do little to alleviate such problems. The use of school children to collect polyethylene bags and fertiliser sacks, improve farmers' awareness of the risk being posed by these materials and that of braided nylon ropes. Encouraging farmers to prevent donkeys from grazing at waste disposal sites is also another preventive measure that can be practised against colic. Extension and education programmes for owners should pay particular attention to these issues.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Important factors in decision-making in tetanus cases in donkeys: Experience of donkey health and welfare project, Ethiopia

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Citation

G. Ayele, E. Bojia, Mulugeta Getachew, Mersha Tesfaye, E. Manyahilishal, B. Amare, A. Abebe, F. Seyoum, Joe Anzuino. December 2010. Important factors in decision-making in tetanus cases in donkeys: Experience of donkey health and welfare project, Ethiopia. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India. 407.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Abstract

There is not enough information on tetanus in working donkeys and factors that affect the outcome of the disease. Medical records of 45 working donkeys with a history of tetanus presented to the Donkey Health and Welfare Project, Debre Zeit, Ethiopia between 2008 and 2009 were reviewed. The animals were admitted to the clinic for
intensive treatment. The cases were divided into survivors and non-survivors groups. The clinical data of survivors and non-survivors were compared using a 2-sample t-test and chi-square test. The average time interval between the first clinical signs and recovery was 19.00±3.50 days for survivors. The survival rate was 66.3%. The first week appears to be the critical period for survival. Further data analysis showed no association between Tetanus Anti- Toxin (TAT) treatment and outcome. The occurrence of tetanus in working donkeys showed seasonality. The majority of tetanus cases were observed during the wet rainy season. Time elapsed between first clinical signs and hospitalization, complete lock jaw, dyspnoea, drenching pneumonia, and recumbency were the major indicators of poor prognosis for working donkeys suffering from tetanus.

Proceedings
Number of pages: 
407
Publisher: 
The Brooke
Publication date: 
31 December 2010
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