working equine

Treatment efficacy in Equine Trypanosomosis: A prospective comparative study of three trypanocides in over 250 clinical cases in working equidae

Citation

Alexandra Rafferty, Jan Rodgers, David Sutton. April 2016. Treatment efficacy in Equine Trypanosomosis: A prospective comparative study of three trypanocides in over 250 clinical cases in working equidae. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 39:Supplement. S99.

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Publication details
Publication date: 
5 April 2016
Volume: 
39
Issue: 
Supplement
Page numbers: 
S99
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.jevs.2016.02.211
Abstract

Trypanocides are essential in trypanosomosis management, but evidence regarding treatment efficacy in equids is scarce. The objective of this study was to establish the relative efficacy of three trypanocides (Diminasan® 3.5 mg/kg IM, Cymelarsan® 0.25 mg/kg IV and Samorin® 0.5 mg/kg IV) with respect to improvement of clinical parameters and parasitic burden and to evaluate adverse drug reactions. A prospective randomised clinical efficacy study was performed in ten villages in The Gambia. Owners were invited to present horses and donkeys for free examination (history, clinical examination and jugular blood sample for packed cell volume (PCV) and total serum protein). Horses and donkeys were enrolled if they fulfilled at least 2/5 inclusion criteria for trypanosomosis (anaemia (PCV<24%), poor body condition (≤1.5), limb or ventral oedema, abortion or pyrexia). Randomised trypanocide treatment was administered and the animals were observed for adverse reactions. Follow up evaluation was performed at one and two weeks to assess treatment effect. Blood samples for each animal collected at weeks 1, 2 and 3 underwent PCR analysis with validated specific primers1 for T. vivax west (TVW), T. congolense savannah (TCS) and T. brucei (TBR).

254/710 animals examined fulfilled study inclusion criteria with follow up data obtained for 243. Age, gender, species, median PCV (22%; range 8-26) and body condition score (median 1.5/5; range 0.5-2.5) were comparable between treatment groups (p>0.1). No immediate adverse reactions occurred following Cymelarsan® or Diminasan®. Immediate reactions occurred in 12/45 (27%) of donkeys treated with Samorin® ranging from neck scratching, lip smacking to tachycardia, cold extremities, sweating and hypothermia. Demeanour classifications improved following treatment with Samorin® or Diminasan® (p=0.002). PCV increased at 1 and 2 weeks post treatment for all treatment groups (p<0.001). On preliminary analysis of PCR results (n=65), animals representing four villages were positive before treatment (week 1) for TVW (55/65; 85%), TCS (44/65; 67%) and TBR (17/65; 26%) with mixed infection common (45/65; 69%). Trypanosome species profile varied between villages (p<0.05). Post treatment positives occurred in all groups for all Trypanosoma sp but with a marked decrease in prevalence (Fig 1). Positives were most common in the Cymelarsan® group, particularly for TCS (7/13; 54%). Two weeks post treatment Diminasan® (15/19; 79%) and Samorin® (19/23; 83%) had reduced parasitaemia below the threshold of detection in most cases. The data support the continuation of treatment with Diminasan® and Samorin® (with careful titration of dosing in donkeys). Further investigation to quantify parasitaemia in post treatment positives will aid differentiation between treatment failure, reduced parasitaemia, new infections and residual non-viable parasite DNA.

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by The Donkey Sanctuary.

Online references

A cluster-randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of different knowledge-transfer interventions for rural working equid users in Ethiopia

Citation

Andrew P. Stringer, Catriona Bell, Robert M. Christley, Feseha Gebreab, Karen Reed, Andrew F. Trawford, Gina L. Pinchbeck. June 2011. A cluster-randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of different knowledge-transfer interventions for rural working equid users in Ethiopia. Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 100:2. 90-99.

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Publication date: 
15 June 2011
Volume: 
100
Issue: 
2
Page numbers: 
90-99
DOI number: 
10.1016/j.prevetmed.2011.02.001
Abstract

There have been few studies evaluating the efficacy of knowledge-transfer methods for livestock owners in developing countries, and to the authors' knowledge no published work is available that evaluates the effect of knowledge-transfer interventions on the education of working equid users. A cluster-randomised controlled trial (c-RCT) was used to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of three knowledge-transfer interventions on knowledge-change about equid health amongst rural Ethiopian working equid users. Groups were exposed to either; an audio programme, a village meeting or a diagrammatic handout, all of which addressed identical learning objectives, and were compared to a control group which received no intervention. Thirty-two villages were randomly selected and interventions randomly assigned. All participants in a village received the same intervention. Knowledge levels were assessed by questionnaire administration. Data analysis included comparison of baseline data between intervention groups followed by multilevel linear regression models (allowing for clustering of individuals within village) to evaluate the change in knowledge between the different knowledge-transfer interventions. A total of 516 randomly selected participants completed the pre-intervention questionnaire, 504 of whom undertook the post-dissemination questionnaire, a follow up response rate of 98%. All interventions significantly improved the overall 'change in knowledge' score on the questionnaire compared to the control, with the diagrammatic handout (coefficient (coef) 9.5, S.E.=0.6) and the village meeting (coef 9.7, S.E.=0.6) having a significantly greater impact than the audio programme (coef 4.8, S.E.=0.6). Covariates that were different at baseline, and which were also significant in the final model, were age and pre-intervention score. Although they had a minimal effect on the intervention coefficients there was a significant interaction between age and intervention. This study should aid the design of education materials for adult learning for working equid users and other groups in developing countries.

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Mainstreaming equine health and welfare - experiences of The Donkey Health and Welfare Project (DHWP) Amhara, Ethiopia

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Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

The Amhara region has the largest donkey population in Ethiopia. However, their welfare can be poor, due to environmental, disease and management problems. This is aggravated by cultural prejudices towards donkeys, their low economic value and the poverty of farmers. In 2003 the Donkey Sanctuary (Sidmouth, UK) investigated the perceived disease constraints to welfare. The investigation made many recommendations; including developing the capacity of the existing government veterinary service and helping make this service more available to donkey owners. In 2005, three government clinics were selected to take part in a pilot scheme. One veterinary surgeon and one animal health assistant from each clinic undertook to promote good medical treatment of donkeys in the area as well as participation in an extension programme aimed at improving donkey welfare. Basic drugs were supplied to the clinics free of charge and donkey owners were asked to pay only a nominal fee toward the cost of treatment. Many challenges were faced in developing this initiative including: finding personnel with the right knowledge, skills and most importantly attitude, negotiating with government bureaucracy and ensuring the availability and supply of drugs. Constant support and monitoring proved essential. The trial was reviewed after six months. This paper examines the lessons learned from this pilot study, the successes and failures, and reports on future developments.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Achievements of The Donkey Health and Welfare Project of The Donkey Sanctuary in Ethiopia (1994-2005)

Citation

E. Bojia, Feseha Gebreab, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Ayele, Mersha Tesfaye, B. Amare, N. Dereje, C. Chala, A. Abebe, Andrew F. Trawford, Joe Anzuino, Mulugeta Getachew. October 2010. Achievements of The Donkey Health and Welfare Project of The Donkey Sanctuary in Ethiopia (1994-2005). Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

In Ethiopia the Donkey Sanctuary started its health and welfare activities in 1994. This was the time when the International Donkey Protection Trust and Addis Ababa University concluded an agreement and signed a memorandum of understanding. Since that time and up to 2003, activities were centred in the districts of Bereh, Boset, Ada and Akaki and Addis Ababa Grain Market located at a radius of 100-150 kms from Debre Zeit, the centre with a stationery clinic. The facilities of the latter include an open-air clinic, surgical theatre, laboratory, store for drugs, boxes for mules and donkeys, offices and a training room. As of 2004, three districts namely: Dugda Bora, Lume and Sebata have been added as sites of operation. Resistance at the very beginning by donkey owners to bring their animals for treatment was a problem but over the years the service has obtained wide acceptance, the trend exhibiting exponential growth: Ada (R2=0.87), Akaki (R2=0.88), Bereh (R2=0.70), Boset (R2=0.70), and for mules (R2=0.84). The clinic has so far provided treatments to 289,999 donkeys and 14,665 mules, and 217,609 owners have benefited. In 2003 two satellite projects have been set up in the northern part of Ethiopia: Amhara and Tigray and have so far treated more than 72,000 donkeys and mules and more than 29,000 owners have benefited. The centre at Debre Zeit was also designed to cater for local and international training, to date it has provided training to 217 veterinary professionals (28 foreign vets, 41 local vets, 17 foreign and 101 local animal health assistants, 30 local animal health technicians) in donkey medicine, surgery, farriery and general welfare. Since 2002, 297 clinical year students enrolled for the DVM degree in the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Addis Ababa University have been trained in donkey medicine and surgery. Three to four clinical year students accompany mobile teams in field operations on a weekly rotation basis. Recently, the project has embarked on an education and extension programme in conjunction with its treatment activities and so far 51,513 owners have benefited. In the recently launched school education programme 1014 students in 7 primary schools are attending sessions in the basics of animal welfare. Baseline data development for the understanding of the health and welfare problems of donkeys in Ethiopia is being pursued by the project staff and through the supervision of DVM thesis involving final year students.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2010

The extension and education methods implemented for sustaining the health and welfare of working donkeys in India

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Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

In India the majority of donkeys are used as pack animals to carry sand, gravel, debris and bricks especially in brick kilns and also goods up the hill in pilgrimage places. Like many of the developing countries the donkeys working in India suffer tremendous abuse, injury and pain. Harness wounds and lameness are common due to improper harness, overloading and lack of knowledge about care and management among the owners. This paper discusses the extension methods that were used and found to be effective with an aim to improve the condition of the donkeys, help them become wound free and prevent suffering. The donkey owners were given practical lessons on how to fit a harness properly, donuts (circular protectors), padding materials and how to make good U-shaped back protectors. A video film was made for this purpose and shown to the owners. Distributing soft cotton hobbles made from fabric waste prevented the hobble wounds. Re-homing abandoned donkeys to good owners and rewarding the owners for best-kept donkeys has encouraged the owners to keep their donkeys in good condition, wound free and fit. Distribution of hoof picks (modified screw drivers) encouraged owners to pick out donkeys' feet regularly to prevent lameness due to puncture wounds and hoof abscesses caused by thorns and sharp objects. Enthusiastic owners were picked and given training in basic donkey care. Efforts were taken to promote correct treatments and also encourage the use of readily available natural herbal products. A cartoon film, study materials in the form of pictures and cartoons were used to evoke interest among the donkey owner's children in basic donkey care. Public awareness included distributing storybooks, leaflets, organising camps at local agricultural and equine fairs and publishing articles in newspapers. A marked improvement in the donkeys' status, health, condition and owners care for their donkey has become a reality due to the implementation of extension and education activities.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2010

Behaviour of urban working donkeys and welfare issues: Experiences from India

Citation

Ganesh Murugan. October 2006. Behaviour of urban working donkeys and welfare issues: Experiences from India. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Prevalence of dental disorders in rural working equines of Mexico

Citation

J. A. Fernando-Martinez, Mariano Hernandez-Gil, Aline S. de Aluja, A. Herrera-Leon, J. L. Velazquez-Ramirez. October 2006. Prevalence of dental disorders in rural working equines of Mexico. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

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Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Nutritional status, measured as body condition, has been used to assess welfare in working equines. Dental abnormalities have a substantial impact on the nutritional status of equines because they limit digestibility of foods and then nutrient utilisation. In Mexico, most of the working equines show body condition scores below 2.5 throughout the year and teeth problems may have a role in this. The purpose of this work was to investigate the prevalence of dental disorders in a population of working equines in Mexico. The study was run within with the work of the mobile clinics of DS-ILPH-UNAM programme. A total of 3,838 equines in 47 rural villages were assessed. Data were collected by surveys and by recording dental disorders in a complete oral examination. Species (donkey, horse or mule), sex (male or female), age and body condition score of every animal was recorded. The prevalence of animals with dental disorders and the frequency of each dental pathology in the affected animals were calculated. Body condition and age of affected animals were recorded. The average prevalence of serious dental disorder was low in all the cases (13%) and did not differ among species and sexes. The most frequent condition affecting incisor line of occlusion was ventral curvature. Enamel points, hooks, ramps, accentuated transverse ridges and steps were the most frequent abnormalities of cheek teeth rows. The average age of affected animals was 10.4±5.8 years, ranging from two to 40 years. Age did not differ among species or sexes. Mules showed higher average age, but the range was narrower than in other species. With regards to the body condition, more than 60% of the affected equines were in the lowest range (<2.5). These results are the first to describe the prevalence of serious dental abnormalities in working equines in Mexico and suggest the subject deserves further investigation. The data would allow strategies aimed at improving equine welfare via nutritional status.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

A comprehensive approach to minimise the fatal effects of tetanus and colic in donkeys of Ethiopia

Citation

E. Bojia, Feseha Gebreab, Alemayehu Fanta, G. Ayele, Mersha Tesfaye, Andrew F. Trawford, Joe Anzuino. October 2006. A comprehensive approach to minimise the fatal effects of tetanus and colic in donkeys of Ethiopia. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Retrospective analysis of the clinic database between 2003-2005 indicated that tetanus (27 cases), colic (134), rabies (7), strangles (17), hyena bite (429), dystocia (39), hernia (27) and car accidents are the major causes of direct mortality in donkeys of Central Ethiopia. The case fatality rates of donkeys affected by these diseases were: tetanus 22%, colic 27%, dystocia 15%, strangles 12%, hernia 11%, hyena bite 7% and rabies 100%, in clinical intervention sites of the Donkey Sanctuary. In the non-intervention areas the mortality rates are expected to be higher as there would be no treatment intervention. In this paper the two major causes of mortality: tetanus and colic are discussed. In the project in Ethiopia, treatments of advanced cases of tetanus following standard procedures have been successful. Of 27 cases treated 21 have been cured. The treatment has, however, been expensive, costing the project an average of 1400 Eth Birr per donkey (mature donkey costs 300-400 Eth Birr) and requiring a long period of hospitalisation. In an ideal situation, prophylactic immunisation is the best option. Economic realities however prohibit such an option from being feasible in countries like Ethiopia. An extension system and strategy that focus on the prevention of wounds using proper harnesses/saddles and institution of a sound hoof care programme is the option in mind. Colic characteristics are: gastric impaction 8%, obstruction of small intestines 7%, colonic impactions 19%, flatulent colic 23%, enterolithiasis/foreign bodies 24%, throboembolism due to strongylosis and undiagnosed cases 19%. Free access to mouldy or coarse feed, ingestion of polythene bags, fertiliser sacks and used fabrics of nylon clothes were the major causes. Common sites of lodgement for enteroliths were the proximal portion of the transverse colon, transverse and small colons. Enterolith/foreign body was often diagnosed in pregnant donkeys with colic. Few cases were relieved by surgery. A considerable number of the enteroliths were removed by manual traction. Veterinary intervention alone will do little to alleviate such problems. The use of school children to collect polyethylene bags and fertiliser sacks, improve farmers' awareness of the risk being posed by these materials and that of braided nylon ropes. Encouraging farmers to prevent donkeys from grazing at waste disposal sites is also another preventive measure that can be practised against colic. Extension and education programmes for owners should pay particular attention to these issues.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

Gatrointestinal parasite burden, body condition and haematological values in equines in the humid tropical areas of Mexico

Citation

M. P. Valdez-Cruz, Mariano Hernandez-Gil. October 2006. Gatrointestinal parasite burden, body condition and haematological values in equines in the humid tropical areas of Mexico. Presented at 5th International Colloquium on Working Equines. (30 October - 2 November 2006). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Authors
Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 30 October 2006
Abstract

Working equines in Mexico are distributed throughout the territory, but the management practices and the health and welfare conditions differ widely between regions depending on people's customs and specific climate conditions. The Eastern coast of México has an important equine population used for work in rural production systems. Something that owners and animal workers are concerned about is how the gastrointestinal parasite burden affects the equines nutritional status and health. This is because parasite reinfestations are most likely to occur in hot, humid climates. However, there are few reliable data to support this and the lack of information makes it difficult to design treating strategies and extension activities to ensure the health and welfare of equines in these areas. To address this, a trial was designed to determine the prevalence of animals infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, the parasite burdens and their effects on the nutritional status and haematological values of working equines from a tropical area of Mexico. One hundred and twelve equines were randomly selected in five different villages of the area. One sample of faeces and one sample of blood (in a tube containing EDTA) were obtained from every animal. Gastrointestinal parasite burden using the McMaster technique, proportions of nematodes species present through a coproculture, packed cell volume, total plasma proteins, red blood cell count and white blood cell count, were measured. The nutritional status was assessed using body condition score. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics. All calculations were done per species (horses, donkeys and mules) and community (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5). Prevalence of infected equines was higher than 90%. The most common nematode species was Strongylus vulgaris. The parasite burden was low to moderate in horses and donkeys, higher in mules; however, it did not affect the body condition, nor the haematological values (P>0.05). Results suggest that in spite of the high prevalence and parasite burdens, equines involved in this trial are not being seriously affected, as shown by the body condition and haematological parameters.

Proceedings
Publisher: 
The Donkey Sanctuary
Publication date: 
30 October 2006

DS-WHW-UNAM jointly training veterinary students of Mexico in equine practice: A way to raise equine welfare for long term

Citation

Omar Uriega-Montafur, L. A. Montes-Huidobro, Mariano Hernandez-Gil. December 2010. DS-WHW-UNAM jointly training veterinary students of Mexico in equine practice: A way to raise equine welfare for long term. Presented at 6th International Colloquium on Working Equids. (29 November - 2 December 2010). New Delhi, India.

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Presentation details
Date presented: 
Monday 29 November 2010
Proceedings
Publication date: 
31 December 2010
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