1) retrospective review using database,
2) video surveillance and behaviour coding,
3) prospective questionnaires
1) to determine the prevalence of main pathologies in euthanized DS donkeys,
2) devise approaches for evaluating pain from behaviour,
3) devise pathology scales,
4) evaluate associations between ante mortem behaviour and post mortem pathology in UK DS donkeys and
5) donkeys slaughtered at an abattoir in Mexico
1) figures on prevalence of 6 main pathologies donkeys PTS UK between 2001 and 2008: dental disorders (80%), vascular disease other than aneurysm (61%), arthritis (55%), foot disorder (45%), gastric ulceration (42%), gastrointestinal impaction (19%), 2) disease/pain cases spent 10% more time lowered head carriage, 15% less time with ears in combinations (ie ears more static), end stage cases spent 31% more time recumbent and 40% less time eating, list of behaviours and associated pathologies 3) number of pain related behaviours found to be related and grouped together 4) positive association between ante and post mortem findings (approx 70% agreement) and presence of pain (approx 80% agreement) in donkeys euthanized in UK. 73.5% of donkeys were receiving treatment at the time of euthanasia, including 65% on non-steroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs).
General agitation, tachycardia and discomfort; locomotion and stance related behaviours significantly increased the odds of a veterinarian stating that donkey is in pain.
General depression and abnormal membranes; general agitation, tachycardia and discomfort; evasive and protective behaviours and locomotion and stance related behaviours significantly increase the odds of a donkey being assessed as having an overall higher degree of pain.
5) of donkeys slaughtered in Mexico there was approximately 80% agreement between pain presence ante and post mortem 6) figures on prevalence of 6 main pathologies in donkeys presented for slaughter Mexico: alimentary and adnexa lesions (85%) including dental disorders (32%), integument lesions (70%), respiratory disease (48%), musculoskeletal problems (29%), mucoid fat degeneration (29%).