horse

Comparative pharmacokinetics of meloxicam in clinically normal horses and donkeys

Objective

To determine the disposition of a bolus of meloxicam (administered IV) in horses and donkeys (Equus asinus) and compare the relative pharmacokinetic variables between the species.

Animals

5 clinically normal horses and 5 clinically normal donkeys.

Procedures

Blood samples were collected before and after IV administration of a bolus of meloxicam (0.6 mg/kg). Serum meloxicam concentrations were determined in triplicate via high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum concentration-time curve for each horse and donkey was analyzed separately to estimate standard noncompartmental pharmacokinetic variables.

Results

In horses and donkeys, mean ± SD area under the curve was 18.8 ± 7.31 μg/mL/h and 4.6 ± 2.55 μg/mL/h, respectively; mean residence time (MRT) was 9.6 ± 9.24 hours and 0.6 ± 0.36 hours, respectively. Total body clearance (CLT) was 34.7 ± 9.21 mL/kg/h in horses and 187.9 ± 147.26 mL/kg/h in donkeys. Volume of distribution at steady state (VDSS) was 270 ± 160.5 mL/kg in horses and 93.2 ± 33.74 mL/kg in donkeys. All values, except VDSS, were significantly different between donkeys and horses.

Conclusions and clinical relevance

The small VDSS of meloxicam in horses and donkeys (attributed to high protein binding) was similar to values determined for other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Compared with other species, horses had a much shorter MRT and greater CLT for meloxicam, indicating a rapid elimination of the drug from plasma; the even shorter MRT and greater CLT of meloxicam in donkeys, compared with horses, may make the use of the drug in this species impractical.

Volume
67
Issue
6
Start page
1082
End page
1085
Publication date

The veterinary care of the horse

Editor(s)

The Veterinary Care of the Horse. Since the second edition was published in 2006 much has changed in equine veterinary medicine and surgery. Our understanding of diseases that affect horses continues to increase and with this knowledge comes the opportunity to improve our management and treatment of both familiar and newly recognized conditions.

The aim of this book is to bring the reader up-to-date with these developments while still presenting the information in the easy-to-read format that was popular with the first two editions.

For ease of reference, each condition is explained under headings which include the causes, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis.

It is appreciated that it is not always easy to remember every detail of the vet's instructions when coping with a sick or injured horse. For this reason, recommendations regarding everyday procedures such as cleaning a wound, poulticing and bandaging are laid out in a step-by-step format.

Subjects such as the prepurchase examination, choosing horse insurance and the use of medication in the competition horse are covered in some depth together with complementary therapies and the veterinary care of the donkey.

Throughout the book, the text is accompanied by informative line drawings and numerous photographs and is an essential book for everyone concerned with the care and management of horses.

Publication date
ISBN (10-digit)
0-851-31924-6
ISBN (13-digit)
978-0-85-131924-7
Number of pages
752
Keywords

Viraemic frequencies and seroprevalence of non-primate hepacivirus and equine pegiviruses in horses and other mammalian species

Non-primate hepacivirus (NPHV), equine pegivirus (EPgV) and Theiler's disease associated virus (TDAV) are newly discovered members of two genera in the Flaviviridae family, Hepacivirus and Pegivirus respectively, that include human hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human pegivirus (HPgV). To investigate their epidemiology, persistence and clinical features of infection, large cohorts of horses and other mammalian species were screened for NPHV, EPgV and TDAV viraemia and for past exposure through serological assays for NPHV and EPgV-specific antibodies. NPHV antibodies were detected in 43% of 328 horses screened for antibodies to NS3 and core antibodies, of which three were viraemic by PCR. All five horses that were stablemates of a viraemic horse were seropositive, as was a dog on the same farm. With this single exception, all other species were negative for NPHV antibodies and viraemia (donkeys (n=100), dogs (n=112), cats (n=131), non-human primates (n=164) and humans (n=362). EPgV antibodies to NS3 were detected in 66.5% of horses, including 11 of the 12 horses that had EPgV viraemia. All donkey samples were negative for EPgV antibody and RNA. All horse and donkey samples were negative for TDAV RNA. By comparing viraemia frequencies in horses with and without liver disease, no evidence was obtained that supported an association between active NPHV and EPgV infections with hepatopathy. The study demonstrates that NPHV and EPgV infections are widespread and enzootic in the study horse population and confirms that NPHV and potentially EPgV have higher frequencies of viral clearance than HCV and HPgV infections in humans.

Volume
95
Issue
8
Publication date
Country

Spatial cognition and perseveration by horses, donkeys and mules in a simple A-not-B detour task

We investigated perseveration and detour behaviour in 36 equids (Equus caballus, E. asinus, E. caballus x E. asinus) and compared these data to those of a previous study on domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). The animals were required to make a detour through a gap at one end of a straight barrier in order to reach a visible target. After one, two, three or four repeats (A trials), the gap was moved to the opposite end of the barrier (B trials). We recorded initial deviations from the correct solution path and the latency to crossing the barrier. In the A trials, mules crossed the barrier significantly faster than their parental species, the horses and donkeys. In the B trials, following the change of gap location, all species showed a reduction in performance. Both dogs and horses exhibited significant spatial perseveration, going initially to the previous gap location. Donkeys and mules, however, performed at chance level. Our results suggest that hybrid vigour in mules extends to spatial abilities.

Volume
16
Start page
301
End page
305
Publication date
Country

Review: pharmacology and therapeutics in donkeys

Therapeutics are often administered to donkeys based on dosage and intervals recommended for horses because very few drugs have donkey-specific label indications. Yet differences between donkeys and horses in drug distribution, metabolism and elimination have been noted for most therapeutic agents studied. These differences can be partially explained by the donkey's unique physiology. Since their ancestors evolved in a desert environment, the modern donkey exhibits qualities that allow them to tolerate dehydration better than the horse and recover more quickly from its effects. Fluid balance and body water compartment partitioning differ from the horse and may have implications regarding drug distribution. Since donkeys are preferential browsers, differences in diet may have influenced evolutionary differences in metabolic disposition of drugs. It is important to acknowledge these differences when designing dose regimes for donkeys based on horse protocols in order to avoid either lack of efficacy or toxicity.

Volume
23
Issue
10
Start page
523
End page
530
Publication date

Respiratory disease in the donkey

The donkey suffers from a similar range of respiratory diseases as the horse; however, there are a number of subtle variations, knowledge of which can influence the success of treatment. As an animal adapted to a semi-arid terrain, there are variations in physiology, anatomy and disease susceptibility. The nonathletic nature of the donkey means that delayed presentation is common with many diseases and, while there may be enhanced resistance to some transboundary and parasitic diseases, there may be equal or increased severity of illness to some endemic diseases, e.g. equine influenza. Donkeys frequently live to geriatric ages and the clinician should be aware of the increased risk of conditions such as tracheal collapse, fibrosing pneumonia and neoplasia in this age group. As with any condition that causes stress and inappetance, respiratory disease in the donkey may be complicated by hyperlipaemia and good nursing care is an essential component of treatment.

Volume
24
Issue
9
Start page
469
End page
478
Publication date

Radiological anatomy of the donkey's foot: Objective characterisation of the normal and laminitic donkey foot

Reason for study

Anatomical change within a laminitic foot is of diagnostic and prognostic importance. A lateromedial radiograph represents the current 'gold standard' by which these changes are identified. Detection of anatomical change is dependent upon a priori knowledge of normality and subjective assessment alone may not identify modest change. Normal baseline data is, therefore, needed against which objective comparisons can be made. There is little information regarding the radiological anatomy of the donkey foot, hence an equine model has been widely adopted. However, descriptive accounts suggest fundamental anatomical differences between these 2 species.

Objectives

To characterise objectively the radiological anatomy of normal donkey feet and define the nature and extent of anatomical change associated with laminitis.

Methods

The anatomy of the forefoot was quantified from lateromedial radiographs of 83 normal and 74 laminitic donkeys, using a computer based imaging system. Data were analysed using univariate and bivariate statistical methods.

Results

Baseline data were established that define the radiological characteristics of the anatomy of normal donkey feet. The key hoof, bone and weightbearing stance parameters of lateromedial radiographs have been evaluated. Laminitis was associated with significant rotation and distal displacement of the distal phalanx, increases in integument depth and morphometric change to the distal phalanx (P<0.05).

Conclusions

This study challenges the validity of applying an equine model to the radiological anatomy of donkey feet. Hence, the diagnosis of anatomical change cannot be based on baseline data previously given for the horse and guidelines should be revised accordingly for the donkey.

Potential relevance

This study provides an objective basis for the identification of anatomical change associated with laminitis in donkey feet.

Volume
43
Issue
4
Start page
478
End page
486
Publication date

Practical feeding and condition scoring for donkeys

Donkeys have evolved to thrive on highly fibrous, poor quality foodstuffs and have evolved as browsers as well as grazers. As such, they have different nutrient requirements with significantly lower energy and protein needs when compared with horses. Dietary management of donkeys is essential when kept in a temperate climate as they are prone to obesity and related disorders. A diet based on fibrous forages and limited grazing is usually sufficient for the majority of donkeys and mules. Specialist feeding is discussed in this article.

Publication date

Nutritional management of hyperlipaemiam

Hyperlipaemia is a disease resulting from excessive mobilisation of triglyceride stores such that plasma clearance processes become overwhelmed. Consequently increased plasma triglyceride concentrations (>5.6 mmol/l), visibly cloudy plasma and a sick, anorexic or hypophagic subject follow. Epidemiological studies have identified many predisposing and triggering factors and the attentive carer or veterinary surgeon should be alert to such risk factors so that the disease can be prevented, or at least identified and treated at an early stage. Hyperlipaemic subjects are invariably in a negative energy balance, and nutritional management therefore plays a central role in both the prevention and resolution of the disease.

Publication date
Country

Idiopathic typhlocolitis in 40 aged donkeys

Typhlocolitis was diagnosed in 40 aged donkeys at routine post mortem examinations subjected to euthanasia for colic-related clinical signs at The Donkey Sanctuary. Gross pathological changes included oedema, ulceration and haemorrhage involving the caecum and ventral colon. Histopathology indicated endoparasite and bacterial associated inflammation in 20 and 11 cases, respectively. Bacterial culture in 18 cases did not yield a definite aetiological agent. Other management and stress related factors were looked at to identify obvious risk factors. This report describes the clinical, biochemical and haematological parameters and pathological changes observed in 40 donkeys diagnosed with typhlocolitis.

Volume
22
Issue
2
Start page
553
End page
57
Publication date
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